Questions tagged [multi-signature]

Multi-signature addresses require m-of-n signatures to authorize spending funds sent to them.

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46
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4answers
38k views

What are multi-signature transactions?

What are multi-signature transactions, and why might they be used? Also see: How does one make multisignature transactions with the bitcoin client? How can I create a multi signature 2-of-3 ...
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5answers
7k views

What are the limits of m and n in m-of-n multisig addresses?

This method describes how to create a 2-of-3 multisig. I heard that there is an inherent limit with the number of multisig parts, limiting them to 3. Does the standard method described above of ...
25
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3answers
5k views

What are the implications of Schnorr signatures?

Adam Back (adam3us) explained in March, 2014, but it is all math. There's another short post with advantages, though. This answer on crypto.SE claims that Bitcoin considered using Ed25519 which is ...
21
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2answers
10k views

How will multisig addresses work?

How will multisig addresses work? Will they consist of multiple traditional addresses, or will they have some different structure? Will one be able to specify whether they will require 2 out of 2, 2 ...
20
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4answers
14k views

How can I create a multi signature 2-of-3 transaction?

Can somebody help me with step-by-step list of how to create a multi signature 2-of-3 transaction?
12
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1answer
5k views

How does one make multisignature transactions with the bitcoin client?

With the release of bitcoin version 0.6.1rc2, it is now possible to do M-of-N required signature transactions in the main network. But how does one actually perform such a transaction? I've been ...
12
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2answers
706 views

How can I avoid transaction malleability consequences?

Please note that this question is NOT a duplicate of other questions regarding transaction-malleability. My question is regarding a following scenario, that could happen on an exchange that uses on-...
11
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1answer
2k views

What are the advantages of Schnorr vs ECDSA?

I understand that Schnorr signatures provide an improvement on ECDSA in that they are a fixed 64 bytes instead of the longer ECDSA sig format, however, I don't see how this is an advantage over ECDSA ...
11
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3answers
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Why are m-of-n transactions not used today?

BIP 11 supports m-of-n transactions. While BIP 16 and BIP 17 are being debated and voted upon, I have to ask: why haven't there been evidence of BIP 11 used in for m-of-n transactions? All that BIP ...
11
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1answer
1k views

Is there a difference between the multi-signature and Shamir's secret sharing?

Is there a difference between the multi-signature and Shamir's secret sharing? Technology/algorithm-wise.
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3answers
1k views

Is there a listing of strange or unusual scripts found in transactions?

I'm studying scripts and am looking for strange or unusual scripts that have appeared in any of the *coin networks..(outside the standard ones listed on this page) Is any one person, or website ...
9
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1answer
9k views

How do I use Multisig transactions to handle escrow needs?

I want to do a private escrow between me and someone else for a Bitcoin miner, and it will take weeks or months for that miner to arrive. I think multisig is an easy trust-free way to accommodate ...
9
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1answer
2k views

How to create the same (2 of 3) multisig adresses as electrum's multisig wallets with createmultisig?

Looking to create 2 of 3 multisig addresses with the electrum console with public keys (not the master public keys): electrum createmultisig 2 '["1st public key wallet 1", "1st public key wallet 2", "...
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2answers
338 views

Mediated transfer of funds between three parties

Alice wants Bob to transfer 10btc to Carol, and is willing to pay Bob 11btc for the transfer. They both entrust Trent to mediate the transaction, and Alice is willing to pay Trent 1btc as commission. ...
8
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3answers
476 views

Could cryptocurrency “insurance” slow Bitcoin adoption?

Does the concept of cryptocurrency "insurance" undermine the purpose of "being your own bank"? Recently I have seen more Bitcoin related companies offer some sort of insurance for Bitcoins stored in ...
8
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3answers
2k views

How can an online wallet be more secure than paper wallets or cold storages?

Recently, after I was reading that some bitcoin early adopter lost 750 BTC due to theft from his macbook, I was looking for the most secure storage solution for my coins. I already know about paper ...
8
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1answer
6k views

How is a Transaction ID generated & when does it change? (with a new sequence ID?)

I'm creating a non-mainstream client that processes and validates Bitcoin transactions and need to track transactions in my database. How is the TxID generated and when does it change? ...
8
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1answer
8k views

Difference between a SegWit address and a P2SH address

Let there be an address 3ABCDEFGHJKDJHDH.... How can I understand if it's a SegWit address or a MultiSig address?
8
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2answers
282 views

Who are the key developers, and where can I follow their progress and decision making?

I want to follow the most up to date developments of Bitcoin, (such as M of N transaction confirmation). Who are the primary developers of Bitcoin and what is the most efficient way to track the ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Implementing Multi-Sig Escrow?

I want to start a BTC market. I understand all the ways to go about creating a site, it's just the payment implementation which confuses me. I want multi-sig transactions capable between my users on ...
7
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2answers
3k views

CHECKMULTISIG a worked out example

I was wondering if somebody could point me to or give me a worked out example of how OP_CHECKMULTISIG works behind the curtains? I expect that CHECKMULTISIG will call the CHECKSIG function and ...
7
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3answers
1k views

What clients support escrow transactions apart from Blockchain's MyWallet?

By escrow transactions I mean basic 2 of 3 multi-signature transaction like here https://blockchain.info/wallet/escrow Are there any other bitocoin clients where I can do this?
7
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1answer
325 views

Bitcoin multi-sign and the amount of storage it required

I read the paper "Threshold-optimal DSA/ECDSA signatures and an application to Bitcoin wallet security". The authors said that in the optimal threshold signature that they propose, players require ...
6
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4answers
2k views

What BIP32 derivation path does Electrum use for Multisig?

Same question as What BIP32 derivation path does Electrum use? but for multisig. thanks.
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3answers
1k views

What is the safest physical to store a private key only to be accessed after death?

Assume that my friend would like to encrypt his Bitcoin private key(s) and safely store them in a secret location. This located would only be identified to heirs after death in his will. Should he put ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Will SegWit allow for m of n multisig with very large n and m?

By reading this answer, I understand that in m-of-n multisig addresses, m and n are limited by the maximum size allowed by the P2SH redeemScript (i.e. 520 bytes). However, in this section of BIP141, ...
6
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2answers
274 views

Multi-sig N of M where 1 of the keys can see the balance but not spend (read-only key)?

If I had a non-HD multi-sig wallet, checking the balance of it would be trivial (I would just look at the blockchain to see the address' balance, without the need to hold a key). However, with HD ...
6
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1answer
194 views

Does MuSig have the same security as 2-2 multisig?

Disclaimer: This question is of theoretical importance to me trying to educate myself better on cryptographic principles and signature schemes. I don't intend to imply that in practice schnorr ...
6
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1answer
3k views

Multi-signature and “pay to script hash” vs “pay to pub key hash”

If I understand correctly, there are two methods to perform a multi-signature transactions in Bitcoin. One is "pay to pub key hash", which is a method commonly used to send standard single signature ...
6
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2answers
495 views

How many different formats can a public address take?

I'm creating an offline index to report off of the block chain. I plan on indexing each transaction based on the address displayed in the TX. Are all addresses Base58? I believe I also read about ...
6
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1answer
1k views

What is “Key Splitting”? When would I use it?

Here is some github code to create split keys. Is Key Splitting the same as Multi Sig? What are the benefits of Key Splitting, what's it used for? How does it relate to P2SH or any other relevant ...
6
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1answer
490 views

Working example of raw transaction utilising Boolean (OP_IF, OP_ENDIF) scripting REQUIRED

I recently posted this Testnet TX (TxID 2d0daa01da8294a54178f8111eb2a02010c425fd15957d8baee8717edcfbe105) which successfully spends an output (TxID ...
6
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1answer
558 views

Are multi-sig M-of-N transactions with N > 3 supported?

BIP 11 makes M-of-N multi-sig transactions standard --- for N <= 3. What is the current support among miners for the multi-sig transactions with N > 3? (say 3-of-6). Also, BIP 11 states: The ...
6
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0answers
117 views

Is it possible to use BitGo's wallet with other software (Electrum or else), what is the used derivation path?

BitGo wallets are based on a 2-of-3 multi-signature, the end user have access to: - Public key (xpub) of the 3rd signer (as the main wallet xpub) - Native Segwit (Bech32), bc1... addresses to receive ...
5
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4answers
6k views

What are the different prefixes of Bitcoin addresses?

Until today, I thought all addresses must start with 1. Well, behold 3M8XGFBKwkf7miBzpkU3x2DoWwAVrD1mhk, which is a multi-sig escrow address created to hold the bounty for the development of CoinJoin....
5
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1answer
156 views

Why is my P2SH sigScript field prepended with 0x00?

I created a P2SH transaction and signed it using coinb.in. The sigScript field for this transaction is: da 00 47 3044 0220 ...
5
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2answers
2k views

P2SH address decoding

What is the process of decoding the P2SH address? We have this information so far. Let's run through an example tx bea1e7ae7ecdc502215717f30d62a12085bb2866d8db730dfb626b60c337534c The hex script (...
5
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3answers
1k views

What happens to bitcoins in a multi-sig transaction if nobody signes?

If I transfer my coins using a multi-sig transaction, they will leave my account, but where are they until the other parties sign and they go to the recipient? If nobody signs, do they come back to me?...
5
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2answers
209 views

Multisig where one of the keys specifically is required?

Is it possible to make a multisig wallet that requires one of the keys specifically and any of the other ones in order to sign a transaction? For example, let's say I have a 2-of-3 multisig that has ...
5
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2answers
323 views

How can I cancel and replace a Transaction that never gets confirmed?

According this this WikiPage, a MultiSigTransaction that doesn't include a fee may never get included in a block. Since I've read that replacing Transactions (by version number or any other feature) ...
5
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2answers
3k views

How can I use multisig / split keys using My Wallet?

I was sure that My Wallet supported multisig, but I can't seem to find it now. How can three users of My Wallet create an address that is only spendable if at least two of them cooperate? Or is this ...
5
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1answer
434 views

How are Lightning network, duplex channels, and micropayment channels related?

I'm new to Bitcoin and just became familiar with Micropayment channels. But how exactly do they relate to: Lightning network Duplex Micropayment Channels ? I am reading about these but can't find a ...
5
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2answers
176 views

What does the Lightning Network UX look like?

I think understand the basics of how Lightning Network works. But what I'm failing to understand is how users will use this in a practical, day to day basis. Say I want to pay for my Starbucks coffee ...
5
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1answer
4k views

How do I find the txid and vout values for an input I want to spend?

I was in the http://coinb.in/multisig/#newTransaction and wanted to make a input but it needed 2 values. Txid, How do I get that? TxIn/vout, Whats that and how do I get that?
5
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3answers
1k views

Predict multi signature transaction size

I was looking for answer everywhere. Basically is there any way of calculate multi-sig transaction size when the transaction is creating, before the signing procedure? I was trying to find any pattern ...
5
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1answer
108 views

Proof of Identity Sidechain Proposals

I have seen various Proof of Identity Proposal that all required some degree of trust (to verify the person in physical possession of a Passport is also the owner of it for example). Have their been ...
5
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1answer
403 views

Escrow multisig output tx

Can someone please explain the third (Escrow) output transaction listed here: https://blockchain.info/tx/09dd94f2c85262173da87a745a459007bb1eed6eeb6bfa238a0cd91a16cf7790?show_adv=true What the ...
5
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1answer
595 views

How can one use multi signature transactions/addresses to improve the security of their services?

Multi signature transactions and addresses are heralded to be a good way to improve security of various Bitcoin services. However, how should one go about using them in order to achieve that goal? For ...
5
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1answer
154 views

Why do the xpubs from electrum and trezor not match when creating a multisig wallet?

For a little background, I am trying to set up a 2-of-3 multisig wallet with 2 trezors and a coldcard. I am trying to verify that my setup is correct before putting any meaningful amount of money in ...
5
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2answers
500 views

Multi-signature public key validation

In a pay 2 script hash transaction, does the redeem script get checked for valid public keys before a transaction can be signed? I have noticed that if I have a redeem script with one invalid pubkey ...

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