Questions tagged [multi-signature]

Multi-signature addresses require m-of-n signatures to authorize spending funds sent to them.

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Proof of Identity Sidechain Proposals

I have seen various Proof of Identity Proposal that all required some degree of trust (to verify the person in physical possession of a Passport is also the owner of it for example). Have their been ...
5 votes
3 answers
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Predict multi signature transaction size

I was looking for answer everywhere. Basically is there any way of calculate multi-sig transaction size when the transaction is creating, before the signing procedure? I was trying to find any pattern ...
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Escrow multisig output tx

Can someone please explain the third (Escrow) output transaction listed here: https://blockchain.info/tx/09dd94f2c85262173da87a745a459007bb1eed6eeb6bfa238a0cd91a16cf7790?show_adv=true What the ...
5 votes
1 answer
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How can one use multi signature transactions/addresses to improve the security of their services?

Multi signature transactions and addresses are heralded to be a good way to improve security of various Bitcoin services. However, how should one go about using them in order to achieve that goal? For ...
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5 votes
3 answers
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BIP0016 pay-to-scripthash transaction validation

BIP0016 says "Validation fails if there are any operations other than "push data" operations in the scriptSig". What does it mean "push data operations"? OP_CHECKMULTISIG seems to be allowed but does ...
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How can I execute a 3-way escrow with 1 unknown party?

Good Evening- I'm trying to execute an unusual 3-way transaction, where in one of the parties is not known at the start. PartyA would initiate the transaction, and provide funding. My thought was ...
4 votes
2 answers
348 views

Why do invalid signatures in OP_CHECKSIGADD not push to the stack?

I've been working through the static test vectors provided by bitcoin core to implement an interpreter. Some surprising behavior I found was that in the case of OP_CHECKSIGADD, if an invalid signature ...
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

How can one see if an address is multisig?

Some addresses on this page indicate whether the address is a multisig, and what the threshold signature scheme is. How do they detect this?
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Why isn't `OP_CHECKMULTISIG` compatible with batch verification of schnorr signatures?

BIP342 defines OP_CHECKSIGADD as a replacement for OP_CHECKMULTISIG. In the footnote it's mentioned that OP_CHECKMULTISIG is not compatible with batch verification, but I can't understand why and I ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Is Sharding a Good Alternative to MultiSig?

For security purposes, we require that each withdrawal be "approved" by multiple servers so that in the event a single server is compromised the attacker won't be able to siphon funds from ...
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1 answer
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1-of-1 multisig

Today I noticed a transaction that spends a bunch of 1-of-1 multisig P2WSH inputs: 675b106c71f110ebca9e6435f49508a07b45d40d38e237d02b89e5506f3b136b For example, the first input has this script in the ...
4 votes
1 answer
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What percentage of Bitcoins stored in a multi sign address?

I am looking for a statistic of the usage of multi-sig addresses over time. More concrete: what is the percentage of Bitcoins stored in a multi-sig address over time.
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2 answers
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Bitcoin API - createmultisig - what is redeemScript?

The Bitcoin API call of createmultisig returns two parameters - address and redeemScript. What is the latter used for?
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1 answer
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How to derive the private key associated with a Coinbase multi-sig vault address

When I created a multi-sig vault on Coinbase, I obtained: A master public key in BIP32 extended format, of depth 0, parent fingerprint 00000000 and child index 0. A private key in WIF format ("user ...
4 votes
4 answers
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In a multi-sig transaction, if one party refuses to sign, what happens to coins?

In a multi-sig transaction, if one party refuses to sign, what happens to coins? Are the coins forever lost, or is the transaction voided as if it never was attempted?
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Multisig vs Multi input transaction signing

Let's say we have a 2 of 2 multisig address that we want to spend from, so the transaction should be signed by both of the private keys. Now let's say we have a transaction with two inputs, so once ...
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Output Descriptor for an Arbitrary Script

Can output descriptors be used to describe an arbitrary script? Say I had a script something like the following: OP_IF 1737417600 OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY OP_DROP OP_DUP OP_HASH160 <pubKeyHashD> ...
4 votes
1 answer
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What is an extended fingerprint (xfp) and how does it differ from an xpub?

Coldcard requires the xfps of all of its cosigners to be able to verify and sign multisig transactions. Providing the coldcard with just the xpubs is not enough, which I believe to mean that the xfp ...
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Bitcoin Protocol OP_RETURN + Omni USDT Tether + CoPay Multisig Help

I have been asked to recover some tether that have been sent to the wrong address... Sitting on the blockchain in a multisig copay account. I have written small php command line tools to reproduce ...
4 votes
4 answers
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How can I reclaim my Bitcoin Cash from my Greenaddress wallet?

I'm new to cryptocurrency in general, and I'm still learning. Let's say someone moves BTC to a multi-signature wallet with a trusted provider, i.e. Greenaddress, before the split from an exchange. ...
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How to transfer Bitcoin Cash from a multi-sig vault?

I have two private keys for a multi-sig vault. I have a tool that will sign transactions to move BTC out of this address. Where can I find a tool that will use my two private keys to move BCC (...
4 votes
3 answers
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2of2 multisig - redeem script required

Normally somebody who signs a multisig transaction also needs the redeem script or all the public keys used for the creation of the redeem script, alongside their own private key. No I was thinking, ...
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1 answer
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What would be a safe way to store large amounts of Bitcoin long term to ensure safety from loss?

What would be a safe way to store large amounts of Bitcoin long term to ensure safety from loss? Is it safe to use Bitaddress.org to generate private keys and use them to generate multi-sig address, ...
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Is it possible to combine multi-sig and locktime?

Is it possible to create a 1 of 2 multi-sig address in which only one of the keys is time-locked and the other can sign any time?
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1 answer
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How do I find the txid and vout values for an input I want to spend?

I was in the http://coinb.in/multisig/#newTransaction and wanted to make a input but it needed 2 values. Txid, How do I get that? TxIn/vout, Whats that and how do I get that?
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How much escrow/ Multi-signature transactions are done?

I have read here about the possibility of Multi-signature transactions. Is there a statistic available how much of these are done?
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596 views

What GUI clients support multisig transactions?

Are there any major current UI wallets (desktop/mobile/web) that support creating / spending multisig transactions?
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Multisignature: what happens if the number of signatures exceeds the "threshold" number of public keys?

Let's say a coin has been locked with a 2-of-3 challenge script. In other words, spending the coin requires two signatures, each of which matches one of three designated public keys. Now I try to ...
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Multisig doesn't work unless all keys were generated from the current wallet?

I tried to create a multisig in both the Bitcoin network and the Bitcoin testnet. It seems to work only when all public keys are from the current wallet. That means when I call listunspent after I ...
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Do some Bitcoin wallets fail to support sending to multi-signature addresses?

The Satoshi client has support for multi-signature transactions through the JSON-RPC API since version 0.6.1rc2. My understanding is that a multi-signature transaction creates an address which is ...
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1 answer
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Check if multiple signatures match a specific public key

Suppose you have a company which has three main leaders called A, B and C also the company have 5 shareholders called S1 to S5. The decision rule for spending any coin from company's address is to ...
4 votes
2 answers
612 views

Multi-signature public key validation

In a pay 2 script hash transaction, does the redeem script get checked for valid public keys before a transaction can be signed? I have noticed that if I have a redeem script with one invalid pubkey ...
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Preventing the exposure of public addresses on a website

Rather than having a single, fixed address, I want to generate a new address on my website every time a user request comes in. I'm concerned about google or another web crawler indexing my website ...
4 votes
0 answers
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How does schnorr signature construct multisig functionality?

How does the multiparty schnorr signature work and enable multisig functionality in Bitcoin? What are its limitations? Can we construct any m of n signature? Is there anyway to hide the signers among ...
4 votes
2 answers
497 views

What multi-sig wallets are there for Android/Jolla?

TL;DR: What wallet apps are there for android (or sailfishOS) that has "true" support for multisig? Requirements/rationale Thinking a bit, if I'm to possess serious amounts of bitcoins, I want a ...
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3 votes
1 answer
441 views

2-of-3 multisig with Schnorr signatures

From what I understand, Schnorr signatures will allow n-of-n multisignature transactions, however m-of-n isn't possible using the key path alone. Or is it? Suppose we need a 2-of-3 scheme. As far as I ...
3 votes
3 answers
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XPUB, YPUB, ZPUB Converter Tools

I was wondering if there are any good X,Y,Zpub converter tools that any of you are aware of. For instance, a tool that could convert an Xpub into the equivalent Zpub. I was inspired to ask this ...
3 votes
1 answer
103 views

musig2 with BIP-32 style nonce chain

I am interested in the case where a fixed pool of signers will sign a series of many messages. As I understand it, musig2 would allow pre-processing, whereby a signature aggregator could collect a ...
3 votes
1 answer
393 views

Are all private keys required to create a multisig bitcoin address

Do all 3 private keys in a 2-of-3 multisig wallet have to exist on the same device at some point in order to generate the bitcoin address? It would be ideal if the 3 private keys never existed on the ...
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How many addresses can be generated from a ranged descriptor?

I'm trying to wrap my head around ranged descriptors. The docs in the bitcoin/bitcoin-repo says that a ranged descriptor can generate keys/address "in a configurable range (0-1000 by default)&...
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Bitcoin 0.17 No public key shown (validateaddress)

I want to generate multisignature address with person, which I didn't know. Someone send me a public key. Then I do: bitcoin-cli getnewaddress "" legacy Ok, I got ...
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3 answers
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Is there a multi Sig Explorer or Stats provider?

Is there a resource where I can get the past and current number of multi sig transactions, all types?
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1 answer
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Multi Sig Sub Keys

When talking about HD (BIP-32?) wallets, I hear talk of Multi Sig and Key Derivation / Chains. Is it possible to mix these two concepts? e.g. I want to store the majority of my coins with a 2 of 3 ...
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Why is it bad to split up a wallet seed redundantly?

I have been reading a lot about wallet security and this seems to be universally considered a bad idea (see for example this video or this answer), but I am struggling to see why it is not a good ...
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How does the sender know the receiver's public keys in a m-of-n transaction?

Assume that Alice is controlling an address that requires multisig to spend bitcoins. Someone wants to send Alice bitcoins and this sender needs to create a scriptPubKey as part of the output paying ...
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Understanding GreenAddress nLocktime/recovery transactions

What I understand is that Greenaddress locks a recovery transaction to be spend 90 days in the future. Whats the advantage in doing this? Why not creating a recovery transaction without nLocktime?
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1 answer
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Can I rely on multisignature addresses being future proof?

I am afraid to store my bitcoin in a multisig address. In the future, if the Bitcoin protocol is updated, could there be any problems with multisig addresses? Are they safe to store bitcoin in for ...
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1 answer
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How can I use multi signature addresses with Bitcoin Core?

Using the instructions on the debug window, I created a multi signature address as below: addmultisigaddress 2 "[\"Address1\",\"Address2\"]" MultiSigAddress My understanding is that one needs the ...
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1 answer
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How to calculate the size of multisig transaction?

Can you help or suggest the formula for calculation of simple multi-sig transactions? I have an issue to calculate the size of multi signature 2-2 transaction. I tried to follow this: Predict ...
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2 answers
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How much does the weight of 2-of-3 multisignature inputs differ between P2SH and P2SH-P2WSH?

I'm trying to calculate the weight of a 2-of-3 multisignature P2SH-P2WSH input. I found the related question Predict multi signature transaction size, which I've calculated with m=2, n=3 here: ...
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