Questions tagged [op-return]

An opcode that allows you to create an unspendable transaction output that stores up to 80 bytes of data.

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1 answer
162 views

How can I query for all OP_RETURN data starting at a specific block height (or hash)

I'm working on a "light client" for ION (Identity Overlay Network), and I'd like to see if there is a better method to grab the OP_RETURN data that it needs in order to build state. ...
5 votes
1 answer
485 views

When is OP_RETURN cheaper than OP_FALSE OP_IF?

Since January 2023 there have been many transactions that embed arbitrary data in the leaf script of a P2TR input using the opcodes OP_FALSE OP_IF (also called "inscription envelope"). This ...
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0 answers
23 views

How can I tell who mined a certain block? [duplicate]

Just like title says, how can I tell who mined a certain block. Is it just the decoded hex value of the OP_RETURN in the first tx?
1 vote
2 answers
84 views

Is it possible/feasible for nodes to redact information (for example inappropriate images) in their blockchain and remain part of the network?

With the freedom to run nodes being critical to bitcoin's success, I'm concerned that if someone successfully writes highly inappropriate or abhorrent information/images as a valid transaction then ...
2 votes
1 answer
105 views

Can OP_DROP be used to include arbitrary data?

I have recently been looking into OP_RETURN and its uses in so far as including data in a transaction. Given the fact that OP_RETURN is limited to 80 bytes I thought what if OP_DROP was used? That way ...
3 votes
1 answer
257 views

What could this OP_RETURN value be

I was messing around on the blockchain learning about OP_RETURN outputs and the equivalent use of Input Data in Ethereum and came across something interesting and I can't make sense of it. It starts ...
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Understanding how ordinals work with the Bitcoin blockchain. What is exactly stored on the blockchain?

Supposedly someone uploaded a Doom clone to the bitcoin blockchain: https://ordinals.com/content/521f8eccffa4c41a3a7728dd012ea5a4a02feed81f41159231251ecf1e5c79dai0 But I'm a bit confused on exactly ...
1 vote
1 answer
71 views

How can I add more OP_RETURN outputs to a PSBT transaction?

I want to fund a PSBT transaction that I created with Bitcoin rust. It looks like there is no such function to do that as the Creator is the only one that can set the inputs and outputs. There is an ...
5 votes
1 answer
129 views

When was the first OP_RETURN output in a coinbase?

One way to deal with the BIP34 does not imply BIP30 issue, aka the Block 1,983,702 Problem, is a soft-fork that makes the SegWit commitment mandatory. [0] There are no OP_RETURN outputs in any of the ...
0 votes
0 answers
57 views

How is the d-30ad... pseudo-address generated for OP_RETURN

How are the pseudo-addresses (e.g., "d-30ad...") used in Bitcoin's OP_RETURN transactions generated? Specifically what process or criteria are used to create these unique identifiers ...
3 votes
2 answers
516 views

Why weren’t Inscriptions possible before taproot by just using OP_RETURN to store the data?

With the recent rise of Inscriptions using the script in the taproot input, why wasn't this possible previously just using OP_RETURN? What is special about the taproot upgrade that made this feasible ...
1 vote
1 answer
206 views

Is the Bitcoin whitepaper embedded in the Bitcoin blockchain? [duplicate]

The Bitcoin blockchain can store arbitrary data. Especially recently, with the ordinals inscriptions, I've seen claims that images up to 390 kB are stored on the chain. In light of this, I was ...
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why would a miner put an OP_RETURN in a coinbase transaction?

I’m looking at this coinbase transaction. I'm confused why there are two outputs and why one of them is labelled with OP_RETURN.
2 votes
1 answer
706 views

Do transactions with null data take longer to confirm?

I was under the impression that null-data transactions were standard, but whenever I try to broadcast one it takes a while for it to appear in a block. I tested this by broadcasting 2 transactions ...
2 votes
1 answer
71 views

How can I store a file hash in a Schnorr signature? Or something other than an OP_RETURN?

I have this python script that puts file hashes on the bitcoin blockchain: from bitcoinutils.utils import to_satoshis from bitcoinutils.setup import setup from bitcoinutils.transactions import ...
0 votes
1 answer
67 views

How can I optimize my python script that creates a btc native segwit tx with an OP_RETURN message?

I have the following code that successfully created a bitcoin transaction with an OP_RETURN message: from bitcoinutils.utils import to_satoshis from bitcoinutils.setup import setup from bitcoinutils....
2 votes
1 answer
176 views

How do I use python-bitcoin-utils to add an OP_RETURN message into a bitcoin transaction?

I have the following code that successfully created a bitcoin transaction with python-bitcoin-utils: from bitcoinutils.utils import to_satoshis from bitcoinutils.setup import setup from bitcoinutils....
0 votes
3 answers
92 views

Can someone break down what is returned by pybtc?

I am feeding network data to pybtc.Transactions. What I do is I take tx messages (which I understand to only contain a single transaction) and I feed them into pybtc.Transaction but only after ...
1 vote
2 answers
106 views

What are the mean, median, range, limits and trends in the size of coinbase transactions?

I'm attempting to estimate how much "spare capacity" there is for merged mining protocols. As I understand it the scriptSig in the coinbase transaction must be less than 100B. However, the ...
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

Was the lifting of the Taproot transaction size limit "accidental"? Why would ordinals want to fill a block with OP_RETURNs?

I was reading this Twitter thread from pourteaux. I'm pretty sure there are some inaccuracies in it but I have a couple of questions. He states: Taproot accidentally blew up the old transaction size ...
1 vote
1 answer
225 views

Can any Script opcode be used in the witness program, or only specific ones?

I was wondering, can one use an OP_RETURN in the witness script? If not, why not? Also, how could I figure this out from reading Bitcoin Core source? I looked at this file, and it wasn't quite clear ...
2 votes
1 answer
170 views

Raw data vs information encoded in OP_RETURNs

Imagine I want to fill the 80 bytes of OP_RETURN data with zeroes, so that the resulting data is 640 bits set to 0, or 160 hex digits set to 0. The data is 640 bits but the information encoded is much ...
3 votes
1 answer
346 views

How can I recognize an OP_RETURN transaction looking only at the hex?

Looking at these two transactions for example: tx1 and tx2. tx1 is an OP_RETURN trasaction, tx2 is a normal transaction. raw hex from tx1 (OP_RETURN): ...
1 vote
1 answer
39 views

Can BIP351 notification transactions be discovered via compact client-side block filters?

I have been reading a bit about BIP351 Private Payments. BIP351 uses nulldata outputs (OP_RETURN) to create shared secrets on the blockchain. Could these notification outputs be monitored client-side ...
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

How can I prevent a transaction from being spent

For an academic article I want to know if I can prevent a transaction from being spent at all? I tried to send a transaction with only one output that contains only data (no output address provided) ...
10 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does OP_RETURN burn coins?

What exactly causes the output containing OP_RETURN to be unspendable? And why do I have to use the byes after OP_RETURN for keeping data in the blockchain and I can't use bytes before OP_RETURN?
3 votes
1 answer
263 views

Tx with OP_RETURN with 77 bytes of data refused by node

A transaction with a 77 bytes OP_RETURN is refused, but with shorter data (e.g. 74 bytes) is accepted, although up to 80 bytes should work. What is the safe limit to be used? Per these references the ...
4 votes
1 answer
662 views

Segwit: Arbitrary data storage in witness?

Let's say I want to encode the text of the King James version of the Bible into the block chain, one piece at a time (replace this with any zany idea to consume copious quantities of block space). ...
4 votes
1 answer
503 views

What has OP_RETURN been used for over Bitcoin's history?

What has OP_RETURN been used for over Bitcoin's history? How were these use cases enabled?
3 votes
2 answers
363 views

Why isn't it possible to add an OP_RETURN (or some arbitrary script) inside a taproot script path with a descriptor?

I'm reading the Bitcoin Core's descriptor documentation and I noticed that the raw() SCRIPT expression can only be used at descriptor top-level. Indeed when called with this descriptor ...
14 votes
3 answers
8k views

What is a step by step way to insert data in OP_RETURN?

I was following https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=453086.0 for creating a message in OP_RETURN. I am able to decode my raw transaction, but on signrawtransaction it gives error: {"code":-22,"...
66 votes
4 answers
44k views

Explanation of what an OP_RETURN transaction looks like

How is OP_RETURN used and why was it introduced in the first place?
2 votes
1 answer
407 views

What is OP_RETURN b9e11b6d?

While investigating some Bitcoin coinbase transactions, I notice that a lot of them have an output of the form OP_RETURN OP_PUSHBYTES_36 b9e11b6d… where ‘…’ is 32 bytes, probably a hash of something. ...
2 votes
3 answers
6k views

How can I search for OP_RETURN data?

Is there any way to check for this data in blockchain? I want to search this value: 554e6963444320 and want to return this transaction https://blockchain.info/tx/...
0 votes
3 answers
216 views

Different ways in which bitcoin can be burnt

I'm interested in the different ways in which bitcoin can be burnt. I can see three ways: Send coins to a 'made-up' address. There's no way to distinguish it from a real address (so the transaction ...
1 vote
1 answer
196 views

Are OP_RETURN transactions not stored in chainstate database?

I'm running a bitcoin node on regtest. I'm writing scripts to interact with the chain-state database. For my purpose, I'm creating, signing and sending a transaction to my node (pretty much following ...
5 votes
2 answers
503 views

Was Bitcoin 0.3.7 actually hard-forking?

Reading through the wiki (bitcoin.it consensus versions) I noticed that release 0.3.7 ("scriptSig + scriptPubKey evaluations separated") is listed as a hard-forking change. In BitMEX's ...
3 votes
1 answer
160 views

"At first, anyone could spend anyone's coins"?

I've been watching this Bitcoin video: https://youtu.be/ZIugzFygviw?t=294 At the linked-to timestamp, he claims that: Due to bugs, at first, anyone could spend anyone's coins! I'm not saying that I ...
2 votes
1 answer
143 views

What is encoded in the first taproot enabled block?

There are a bunch of encoded messages in the first taproot enabled block in op_return outputs. What is encoded there?
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0 answers
161 views

Creating an OP_Return TX with Python bitcoinlib

How can I create an op_return TX with python bitcoinlib? The transaction should include the OP_RETURN HEX-Data and an address where I send my change money
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Bitcoin Protocol OP_RETURN + Omni USDT Tether + CoPay Multisig Help

I have been asked to recover some tether that have been sent to the wrong address... Sitting on the blockchain in a multisig copay account. I have written small php command line tools to reproduce ...
0 votes
2 answers
206 views

How much information can a single taproot output hold?

Does taproot make OP_RETURN obsolete? How much information can I stuff into an output? A tapscript leaf? Is there a max depth to the tapscript tree?
2 votes
3 answers
4k views

Create OP_RETURN tx with Bitcoinjs-lib

I know how to create a basic TX: var bitcoin = require('bitcoinjs-lib') var tx = new bitcoin.Transaction() // Add the input (who is paying) of the form [previous transaction hash, index of the ...
0 votes
2 answers
549 views

Why are OP_RETURN transactions discouraged? Does using version or locktime make any difference?

Why are OP_RETURN transactions discouraged? Are they paying less fees compared to other transactions? Will it make any difference if same thing is done using version or locktime when data is either 1 ...
0 votes
1 answer
90 views

Retrieve number of OP-RETURN transaction

Is there a possible way to extract the bitcoin transaction protocoll with Python and extract specifically OP RETURN transaction? I want to plot the number of those over the course of time to derive ...
0 votes
1 answer
227 views

Accessing bitcoind from python module hits error

I am experimenting with the blockchain a bit, specifically trying to use the python-OP_RETURN module to put a few bytes into the blockchain op_return field. To use this module I blv I need a running ...
12 votes
2 answers
4k views

Is there a maximum size of a scriptSig/scriptPubKey?

Previous research: Transaction's maximum size What is the maximum size of a transaction? The maximum size of a standard transaction is 100k bytes. Are there any consensus rules that prohibit ...
2 votes
1 answer
323 views

Can Taproot be used to commit arbitrary data to chain without any additional footprint?

A common way of committing some data to the chain is through an OP_RETURN with some hash. Doing this marks an output unspendable, but the output still requires some footprint (and cost) on the chain ...
3 votes
2 answers
6k views

What's with this address 1111111111111111111114oLvT2?

It was the burn address with the most BTC received in 2017 according to http://bitcoinwhoswho.com/blog/2017/12/30/8-97-bitcoins-burned-in-2017/. It's Hash160 is ...
0 votes
2 answers
75 views

How is "additional information" stored in the ledger and which blockchain projects don't allow it?

So there have been these rumours going around about child abuse information being stored in the bitcoin ledger, that might make bitcoin illegal to possess. How is this infirmation stored and are ...