Questions tagged [proof-of-work]

This tag should be used for questions regarding how Proof of Work works and Proof of Work algorithms. Proof of Work is a scheme where a 3rd party can verify that someone performed at least a certain amount of work to produce something. This is used in Bitcoin mining.

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Proof of work: optimal number of transactions?

I've been struggling with this Q for a while: My initial understanding was that miners start to work on PoW for new block immediately after the previous round's block is confirmed. My Q is this: ...
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1answer
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What prevents a miner from faking nonce hash

What exactly prevents a miner from presenting a random nonce hash of the block with enough zeroes at the start to get chosen? How is the new hash verified by the other nodes? Since as I understand ...
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Bitcoin Mining Computational Power [duplicate]

1/ I do not understand why bitcoin mining is random when hashing is deterministic. reference : https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Nonce Can the mining pool with the most mining power always win? What value ...
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3answers
1k views

Difference (if any) between proof-of-work in mining bitcoin vs verifying transaction

I'm trying to understand the proof-of-work idea for verifying a transaction. I think I understand why proof of work is needed to verify transactions (essentially to prevent spoofing/double spending ...
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2answers
23 views

Bitcoin mining process-the leading zeros before the hash-how is the mining puzzle solved exactly?

Can someone please explain: In Bitcoin proof of work, mining is done to create and validate new blocks. Who becomes the sole block producer is subject to winning a "mining puzzle". As I understand, ...
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Bitcoin Orphan blocks - short question about the “time lag” factor and proof-of-work “size”

"However, it is possible that two miners produce a block at a similar time. This situation occurs because the acceptance of the blocks into the blockchain by the nodes of the blockchain network ...
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1answer
31 views

Beneficial proofs of work [duplicate]

I'm new to this community and a Bitcoin novice. I believe to have understood the concept and purpose of proof of work but also, that the high energy consumption of proofs of work is a major problem ...
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2answers
78 views

Mining Probability

Assuming two miners have a (1/x) chance of finding a block over some time period, is the probability of both miners finding a block within that period simply (1/x^2)? More generally, would n miners ...
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1answer
46 views

If all Proof of … systems use mining

I understand how Proof of Work (PoW) works now, and am beginning to look at different Proof of ... systems like these: Proof of Stake Proof of Ownership Proof of Existence Proof of Space From what I ...
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2answers
25 views

Is it possible to accurately map hashing power to network size?

Let's say we have a network with n nodes in it. Is it possible, when the hashing power of the network is calculated after a proof-of-work, to accurately estimate n with an algorithm taking the ...
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31 views

How is the amount of proof-of-work invested in a chain calculated?

The bitcoin whitepaper (page 3) states The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it. I could not find how exactly this ...
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2answers
79 views

What is the reason to pay miners “monetary rewards” for mining process?

Is it correct to say that: In Bitcoin, it is crucial to incentivize miners by monetary reward, because mining process has significant monetary cost (energy/electricity cost). ? otherwise, mining ...
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62 views

What would happen if PoW cost were drastically reduced or eliminated?

Assuming Bitcoin had a different method for selecting winning nodes and controlling block time creation, please describe step-by-step how the Bitcoin network would be vulnerable to various attacks. ...
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80 views

Proof of Work: email versus bitcoin

I have read "Hashcash is a proof-of-work algorithm that requires a selectable amount of work to compute, but the proof can be verified efficiently. For email uses, a textual encoding of a hashcash ...
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What other proof methods are there? [closed]

I am familiar with the proof of work method and a little with the proof of stake method. Is there any more methods that are out there and how do they work?
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1answer
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How do offchain transactions get validated/confirmed whilst using Lightning network?

How do offchain transactions get validated whilst using Lightning network?
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1answer
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How is mining associated to blockchain transactions?

I know how mining works and how transactions are added to the blockchain. What I don't understand is the association between the two...if any. I've read a few times about how a cryptocurrency ...
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1answer
532 views

Block Hash and Nonce generated by GenesisH0 python script is incorrect

After running GenesisH0 python script to generate the Genesis block for a local testnet (using v0.15.1), I got the following results. merkle hash: ...
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1answer
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Proof of Work and Proof of Stake - Competitive advantage

It is said that Proof of Stake will be the mainstream consensus mechanism in the long run. Regarding the nature perspective I totally agree. But it has been rumoured that Proof of stake is more ...
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1answer
26 views

randomly assigned pow?

in Bitcoin, every node solves the POW puzzle. instead, are there cryptocurrencies where a random group of nodes is chosen (before block creation), and only that group solves for the puzzle?
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143 views

Where can i find proof of work in Electrum(light weight bitcoin) source code?

Hi does anyone knows where can i find electrum's proof of work in the source? https://github.com/spesmilo/electrum
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2answers
81 views

Review of “equitable” proof-of-work systems

One major criticism against usual SHA-based proof-of-work systems in main cryptocurrencies (except the ecological concerns) is the fact that, years after years, it's more and more dominated by a ...
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1answer
52 views

Miner modify pending block (not yet on chain) and successfully solve the PoW

For example, I pay a cup of coffee with bitcoin, and later remove that transaction from the pending block that is not yet on chain. After 10 mins, I successfully and luckily solve the PoW problem, and ...
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1answer
197 views

Hashcash proof of work bitcoin sha256

I'm looking for a program or something to run from the terminal in mac. That does the same thing as the program found here. http://www.blockchain-basics.com/HashPuzzle.html?nonce=221 What I'm looking ...
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2answers
156 views

How to secure new public proof of work blockchain?

I am fairly new to the bitcoin and blockchain technology and have recently started reading about it. So my understanding and the question bellow may not be very accurate. As I have understood so far, ...
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1answer
69 views

separating proof of work from mining possible?

I (think to) understand that proof-of-work is the process through which transactions are verified and the health of the network is being ensured. I also (think to) understand miners get bitcoins for ...
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1answer
145 views

Hash-based crypto-currencies?

What are the most famous crypto-currencies which use repeated hashes as proof-of-work? What are the other proof-of-work methods?
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1answer
229 views

Sample proof of work in Ruby, what am I doing wrong?

Given the following block, how do I verify the proof of work? I got this data from bitcoin-cli getblock and parsed in to a Ruby hash called data: {"hash"=>"...
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0answers
22 views

what prevents a miner from adding a false transaction to a block and then adding it to the block chain in PoW? [duplicate]

Here is what I understand, the step to PoW are: step 1:Miner select some transactions from its mempool. step 2:Miner tries to create a block and then broadcasts it if successful. step 3:Other ...
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0answers
42 views

Finding target based on difficulty calculation

I'm trying to find the current target value, but it is not listed in any place. So far I found out that the only way to get target value is to calculate it from "difficulty" value, which is now: 6,379,...
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0answers
32 views

Estimating difficulty of “Memory-Hard Proof-of-Work” based on “size of memory”?

In Bitcoin proof-of-work, the difficulty of Proof-of-Work is estimated and calculated based on total hashing power of the participants. If total hashing power of the participants is higher, then PoW ...
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0answers
37 views

Why this alternative method to mining will fail?

From what I understand, we need mining to validate the block, we need the proof of work to limit the number of miners can add a block, and we need the block interval to give time to the new block to ...
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2answers
189 views

Difference between Hashcash proof of work algorithm and Ethash proof of work algorithm?

Understand that each proof of work algorithm has its pros and cons. Difference between Hashcash proof of work algorithm and Ethash proof of work algorithm? Nathan Aw
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108 views

How often should a mining pool be notifying workers about new work (cancelling current jobs)?

I'm trying to get a handle on the Stratum mining pool protocol. If I set up a mining pool client, I will initially get something to work on. Let's say it takes me a while (e.g. an hour) to solve the ...
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1answer
58 views

What was the first transaction which resulted in the very first bitcoin being mined [duplicate]

OK, so I understand that bitcoin in introduced into the system when mining is performed. And mining is a process of adding transactions records to the bitcoin chain of blocks. And transaction (...
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3answers
361 views

After sending/flooding transactions, how do we know that a specific transaction is on all nodes?

In the book "Mastering the Blockchain" by Imran Bashir, it says that a transaction's life cycle is the following: A user/sender sends a transaction using wallet software or some other interface. ...
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1answer
184 views

Is the purpose of proof-of-work the immutability of the blockchain?

I have a disagreement with a person: I believe that the primary and most important goal of including proof-of-work (and therefore the nonce) in a block is to make it hard for an attacker to change ...
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1answer
316 views

Question solved by bitcoin miners [duplicate]

What computational questions are solved by bitcoin miners and what is the computational complexity of one instance of this question. Essentially, how would someone program an application for bitcoin ...
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1answer
42 views

Validation methods beside POW etc

Are there other concepts for the validation of the next added block to the blockchain beside POW, POS etc.? Of cource there are, but is there a methode that is shining out of the mass? A methode that ...
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1answer
193 views

Has anyone verified what your CPU is being used to do when it “mines” for bitcoins? [duplicate]

I understand that "mining" for bitcoins requires your computer to do work that you don't monitor, so my question is, how do you know what it is that your computer is doing? Has anyone verified what ...
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1answer
113 views

How are miners prevented from doing too much work?

I understand that scripts can be written within transactions that make the miners do some work. How does Bitcoin ensure that scripts that make miners do too much work are prevented?
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1answer
173 views

Bitcoin related research areas [closed]

I have a one year research project in my MSc curriculum. So i was suppose to address a existing issue in bitcoin protocol. Highly appreciate if someone can advise me and give me some ideas. Thank you....
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1answer
88 views

How to change Bitcoin's proof of work? Then enable miner [closed]

I'm using https://github.com/jgarzik/pyminer/blob/master/pyminer.py to test a few different hash functions. Instead, I'd like to try keccak, a few of them in some order like an "X5" and so on. This ...