Questions tagged [protocol]

This tag should be used for questions relating to the protocols by which cryptocurrencies are transferred. This includes the network protocol and consensus rules.

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Difference between hashgraph and bitcoin regarding tx communication between nodes [duplicate]

I heard about hashgrap and its gossip protocol and that hashgraph uses gossip about gossip. The latter obviously is not true for bitcoin, however, in the presentatin the gossip protocol itsself was ...
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54 views

What does a wallet do?

what are the actual requirements for a bitcoin transaction? Not the simple inputs, outputs, verification or amounts, but in the technical sense. what does your wallet do? every thing I read says you ...
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how do bitcoin nodes detect a transaction?

I have a number of question about bitcoin but I was ask to do specific research on two questions and I figured this would be a good place to start. The first I have answered already the second is: &...
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Why is the full blockchain required, effectively forever?

I do understand that every block is validated in terms of the blocks before it by way of the previous block's hash, all the way back to the genesis block. However, could the protocol be modified such ...
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(How/Why) - Work vs Block Size Limit and Leading Zeros [duplicate]

Tl:dr How did Satoshi/the community decide an appropriate block-size-limit? Why does the protocol increase mining difficulty by adding zeros? I've some limited experience with some of the ...
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35 views

How to understand the first reply of a node

I have send my version message to a bitcoin node and the hexdump of his answer was this: https://pastebin.com/QBNaeS0g Maybe this is a network related question but I want to know the version used by ...
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53 views

Why does the value range of outputs need to be restricted?

In the 'tx messages' section for protocol rules we have Each output value, as well as the total, must be in legal money range For each input, if the referenced output does not exist (e.g. never ...
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607 views

What does the little-endian notation improve for Bitcoin?

In another thread I read that the little-endian notation speeds things(?) up. Has someone info on what exactly it improves for Bitcoin?
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What exactly does the “For each input, if the referenced output exists in any other tx in the pool, reject this transaction.” tx validation rule mean?

I am currently following the "tx" messages section of en.bitcoin.it/wiki website, and I need some clarity about the following rule regarding the validity of a transaction: For each input, ...
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192 views

does bitcoin have omni layer?

I was looking into omni protocol and couldn't quite figure out some things. I'd really appreciate your opinions. I tried to look into all the bitcoin stachexchange answers, but nothing that much ...
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123 views

Why should BIP157 compact filters be processed in-order?

In BIP157, under "Client Operation", we have the following paragraph: Starting from the first block in the desired range, the client now MAY download the filters. The client SHOULD test ...
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Why is JSON not used in the Bitcoin P2P protocol?

The Bitcoin P2P protocol uses its own serialisation format for the transferred data. Is this serialisation considered as more secure against DoS attacks than JSON?
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Why does the txn_count field exists in a block?

I was wondering why the txn_count field in a block exists. The count of transactions could be determined by parsing the txns field in tx format, right? Same for 'tx_in count' and 'tx_out count' in a ...
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38 views

How does initial exchange of inventory work when both nodes have different chains?

When two nodes connect to each other and exchange getblocks messages but they have different blockchains will both nodes download each others blockchain to verify which has higher chainwork or will ...
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63 views

How does a node send a chain?

I understand that in selfish mining a malicious node can "send its entire hidden chain". Exactly how is this done? I know that usually a single block is broadcast-ed right after it is mined, ...
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56 views

Why do other miners check block validity along with proof of work? [duplicate]

I am new to blockchains and bitcoins. So, please pardon the lack of understanding. Assume I am a miner who adds a bogus transaction (say a transfer from my account which has 0 balance to my other ...
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70 views

Did the FIBRE protocol reduce the occurrence of chain forks?

I've just learned that Fibre protocol is used for really fast block propagation. My understanding is that if blocks are propagated faster, miners can more quickly continue to work on (what seems to ...
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178 views

Is there any other protocol in use besides a “Gossip protocol”

I'm interesting is there any other protocol that is being used inside Bitcoin network besides "Gossip"? And if there is, in which layer of communication and for which purpose is being used? ...
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How exactly does “CoinDance” determine the current number of public Bitcoin nodes?

On this URL: https://coin.dance/nodes It says how many public Bitcoin nodes are currently active in the world, and how many Bitcoin Core ones. While it's good that I can grab these numbers from that ...
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Why is not possible for a hacker to intercept the hashes calculated by a miner, and send it all himself as if he was a miner?

(I tried to make a more specific question, but is a bit confusing to me. Sorry.) When a miner calculate a hash, where exactly does he send to in order to validate it? To all the nodes in the network? ...
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32 views

getheaders request being ignored by peers [closed]

It seems my 'getheaders' request is being ignored by peers. I've followed the implementation: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Protocol_documentation#getheaders without success. If I change it to 'getblocks'...
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85 views

Some miners set the nVersion field of the block header to 0x8000004. What were they signalling for? Was this an error?

Some miners set the nVersion field of the block header to 0x8000004. What were they signalling for? Is this an error? I have been through a lot of the BIP documentations, but cannot seem to find any ...
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49 views

How were miners supposed to signal support for BIP148?

Under BIP141 (SegWit), you could signal support by setting nVersion bit 1 equal to 1. BIP9 counted: 20000002 100000000000000000000000000010 20000012 100000000000000000000000010010 30000007 ...
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How are we so sure that the bitcoin network is connected?

I am only beginning to understand the bitcoin's p2p network protocol but so far I know (and correct me if I am wrong) that a new node in the network attempts to connect to a "few" other nodes that ...
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33 views

What if periodic redistribution of bitcoin had been built in the protocol/wallets?

Imagine if there was a Bitcoin-like currency that had periodic wealth redistribution built in the protocol. For example, every month you and every other wallet would pay 20% of their bitcoin evenly to ...
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1k views

Why raw Bitcoin transaction are in hex format?

Why are Bitcoin raw transactions in hexadecimal format? I am looking for scientific articles / books on this topic and I can't find anything, so my question is: why are they in hexadecimal and can ...
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161 views

BIP34, BIP66 and BIP65 should have been enforced at unique block heights. Why do different sources claim different block heights for enforcement?

Inconsistent Consensus/Activation of BIPs BIP34 Activated Block Height 227,835 (BitMEX Reference) Activated Block Height 227,930 (Bitcoin Developer Reference) Activated Block Height 227,931 (...
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57 views

How proof of work works in Blockchain?

Sorry, if the question may seem trivial but it is bothering me for a while now. I understood how the proof of concept works when one tries to change an old block. But how that will work for the case ...
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193 views

How to disable initial block download [closed]

I want to create an original network by forking bitcoind. I changed chainparams.cpp and other programs for loading it. Then, I set DNS for my seed node. When I boot my seed node, my seed node tries ...
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71 views

Incentive for miners to keep mining once reward get very low [duplicate]

Currently each winning miner receive 12.5 bitcoin or 12.5*10 000 dollar per successfully mined block and the amount of bitcoin receive is divided by 2 approximately each 4 years. The incentive to ...
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53 views

How to Construct a Ping Message

I am struggling greatly trying to figure out how to send a basic "PING" message, and receive back a "PONG" response. import random import hashlib import socket PEER_IP = "35.187.200.6" PEER_PORT = ...
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2k views

Bitcoin protocol and Wireshark

I captured bitcoin protocol communication in real-time and it is present in fig1 and fig2. Fig1 In red box, there are many types of command. First Question: How can Wireshark detect bitcoin ...
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56 views

Do full-nodes process all transactions before broadcasting the new block header?

If so, why not do it after (re)broadcast? I think it would cut down on lag time. Since the node would still validate the PoW and the previousblockhash, it would not be possible to DoS the network ...
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Can a block have multiple coinbase transactions? Also is there a limit to the number of signatures a multi-sig transaction has or requires? [closed]

I am wondering if a block can be created with multiple coinbase transactions. The US government regulates mining pools that have control over the miner's wallets, so it would be fabulous if this could ...
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Does finding neighbors in Bitcoin consider locality and hop count?

When the list of neighbors is being gathered by a new nodes in the network, does it consider the distance between the nodes to find closest possible, or it just takes some random nodes? In other words,...
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506 views

Mining Probability

Assuming two miners have a (1/x) chance of finding a block over some time period, is the probability of both miners finding a block within that period simply (1/x^2)? More generally, would n miners ...
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Where can I find a detailed network protocol spec? [duplicate]

I have been trying for a while to understand how the bitcoin network works, which I (kind of) do on a high level. However, all of the sources I read don't go into the details of the protocol that ...
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399 views

What are the differences between Bitcoin and Libra?

Recently, Facebook announced to launch a crypto currency called "Libra". Libra is managed by associations under the name "Libra Association", see https://libra.org/en-US/association/. What are the ...
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210 views

How to get block headers from block hash using P2P API?

I have been experimenting with getheaders and one thing I can't seem to figure out is how to get a header for a specific hash, because getheaders doesn't provide this feature. According to the ...
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125 views

Why does getheaders P2P API return more than getblocks?

I've been reading through the Bitcoin P2P protocol documentation as well as experimenting with Bitcore library but confused about one thing. So getblocks seems to return inventory objects, which are ...
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140 views

Genesis block coinbase transaction without confirmations

Why the coinbase transaction, comming from the genesis block, don't have confirmations? All the others coinbase transactions have confirmations, but not in the Genesis block.
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156 views

Magic numbers BIG-LITTLE endian

I'm long time really confused about LITTLE/BIG endian encoding. With regard to bitcoin when you check protocol documentation here it says that btc magic number as send over the wire 0xF9BEB4D9 which ...
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179 views

Curl bitcoin protocol for learning?

I'm trying to understand bitcoin RPC Peer to Peer protocol to implement SPV on a web-application that should receive crypto payments. The problem is that on the examples I found, examples are about ...
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1answer
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What key is used to create a script?

I'm trying to sign an input in my transaction. The question is: which key has to be used in the "script," private or public? It would be silly to disclose a private key there, right? But how will the ...
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68 views

Security of ChaChaPoly (IETF rfc7539) in the noise protocol framework of the Lightning Network

According to this paper ChaChaPoly is secure against chosen known plaintext attacks. I wonder however if that security assumption is weakened by a lot since messages sent on the transport layer of the ...
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171 views

How would the gossip protocol announce channels from a channel factory?

I was just listening to SLP59 with Christian Decker. They mainly discussed channel factories. While the construction of multiparty channels and higher order systems (sub channels) being derived from ...
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177 views

Why was noise XK fundamental pattern chosen in the transport layer (BOLT 08) of the lightning network

I am currently reviewing the transport layer of the Lightning network protocol. It builds on top of the noise protocol framework handshake patterns. What I don't get: Why was the fundamental pattern ...
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71 views

Are Bitcoin core devs contributing to ISO/TC 307 Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies

I was just being made aware of the standardization process about blockchain and distributed Leger technologies. https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html In this picture from the talk that I am ...
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38 views

Bitcoin create TX. What is 'hash_type'?

https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/a/5241/92798 What is the meaning of item 13? Why is this value chosen? What does it mean?
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White paper text is not clear to me

Is there any intention by the respective author or by Bitcoin.org to edit, improve or re-write the white paper for absolute clarity? Among others I do not understand the value of repetitive ...

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