Questions tagged [scalability]

Scalability refers to the capability of a system or network to cope with growing adoption and workload.

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What are the downsides of integrating accumulators like utreexo to bitcoind?

Inspired by the discussion in this question I wonder what would be the downsides of adding accumulators like utreexo (paper at: https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/611.pdf) to bitcoind? On the positive ...
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What is the Big-O for LN bandwidth? Can anyone answer this or provide a link to a spec that is sufficient enough for us to calculate it?

When I worked at Google, if someone wanted to deploy a network application they would need to provide a document to the SREs detailing the behaviour of the application at scale in terms of Big-O. Does ...
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PBFT vs. Proof-of-Authority?

based on this answer: https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/a/79402/41513 : PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) is a voting based consensus algorithm in which every node must send messages to ...
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Why does DPOS provide greater tps (faster) than Bitcoin-NG?

In Bitcoin-NG example Waves, a leader is elected who can then validate micro transactions, with speed limited by network propogation times. DPOS example EOS for example has 21 delegates ("block ...
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On blockchain scalability bottleneck

It is often said that the major bottleneck of blockchain scalability is that every (honest) node has to process every (valid) transactions. But the progress of a blockchain is how fast it reaches ...
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Why is liquid so inactive and (according to statistics) not being used yet?

After years of development 3 Months ago Liquid (the side chain project) was announced. If you look at https://liquid.horse/ you can find the following statistics as of right now: Sidechain Stats ...
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1answer
78 views

How do nodes communicate over Lightning network?

I read the following article and watched below video. https://medium.com/@melik_87377/lightning-network-enables-unicast-transactions-in-bitcoin-lightning-is-bitcoins-tcp-ip-stack-8ec1d42c14f5 https:/...
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Does a transaction always get verified/processed by ALL full nodes in the network before being added into the block by some mining node(s)?

If not, then why is it often claimed that the blockchain scaling issue is due to the fact that all tx has to be verified by all full nodes? As long as a mining node found the correct nonce, the tx ...
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213 views

Is PBFT a consensus algorithm?

Can we consider PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) as a consensus algorithm ? And if yes, How does it work? And is it similar to other consensuses such as PoW, PoS or PoA ? Or it is totally ...
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1answer
44 views

Block Size Hurdle

Given that Bitcoin has a 1 MB block size limit (approx. 2k transactions processed every 10 minutes), would I be correct in saying that as soon as the world will start using Bitcoin more frequently to ...
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1answer
49 views

“Centralized Relational Databases” vs. “Decentralized Blockchain ” : Which one is really more scalable?

There are many research papers on problem of scalability of blockchains: Just as an example : An Overview of Blockchain Technology: Architecture, Consensus, and Future Trends However, (usually by ...
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What is the difference between Compact Blocks, Thin Blocks, Xthin and Graphene Compression?

What is the difference between these block propagation techniques in terms of size / bandwidth & computation requirements and also compatibility & reliability? All the above techniques try to ...
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Is it possible to splice a new participant into a LN channel factory?

I am reading paper named "Scalable Funding of Bitcoin Micropayment Channel Networks". If Alice, Bob, and Charlie created a channel factory, I thought that only these three people can make a payment ...
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What is the smallest fee you can pay for an on chain transaction?

From what I understand, the smallest fee you can pay to miners per transaction is 1 Sat/byte. With a basic Bitcoin transaction being roughly 250 bytes that would obviously mean the fee is 250 sats. ...
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Full node storage requirements for new 2MB block which is only 10% full

If blocks were 2MB, and a 2MB block that is only 10% full gets confirmed, then how much additional storage is required on a full node? I am guessing the correct answer here is 200K? Thanks in ...
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Why blocks are validated instead of transactions?

In most of the conventional blockchains, blocks are validated instead of transactions. Why cant' transactions validated directly? The structure of basic blockchains are linked lists, by having DAGs, ...
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52 views

Is scaling Bitcoin heading it to a dead end?

The immutability of any given blockchain is reinforced by the total hashing power behind it. Proof of work (ergo a financial commitment) is a necessity to ensure the party verifying transactions is ...
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1answer
248 views

How does LN solve the liquidity problem?

How do nodes in LN manage to provide 100% collateral to all the outgoing channels? I attached an example below that details my confusion about the lack of liquidity.
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240 views

How does the lightning network solve double spending?

This is probably obvious to some of you on here, but I'm a beginner. I recently read the lightning network whitepaper and its very unclear to me how the lightning network addresses the double spend ...
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2answers
396 views

What is the size of different types of channel funding/closing transactions for the Lightning Network?

This matters a lot for people who want to host a Lightning Network node and will influence LN-transaction fees, because a node-host has to justify the miner fees of setting up channels for others with ...
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1answer
168 views

What cryptocurrency has the most potential to replace everyday cash / casual transactions? [closed]

I am asking in terms of transaction fees, scalability, transaction time etc. I am a bit lost with so many cryptocurrencies coming out and focusing on different problems. What's some of them or one of ...
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What are Channel Factories and how do they work?

One of the open research questions for Lightning Network is that it will take a massive amount of on-chain transactions to create enough payment channels for all the Lightning Network users. Lately, I'...
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3answers
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Can we drive the bitcoin transaction fee arbitrarily close to zero by keep increasing the block size limit?

Can the bitcoin scalability problem be solved in the long run by increasing the block size limit (either dynamically or statically)?
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Polling for transactions — possible scalability issues?

We are generating a few thousand addresses by an offline wallet, and plan to run a bitcoind node to check for incoming transfers. The idea is to check an address e.g. every second and get the list of ...
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59 views

Bitcoin blockchain to directed acyclic graph two-way peg

Are there any known technical or security related reasons why it would not be possible or safe to implement a two-way peg between the Bitcoin blockchain and a directed acyclic graph of bitcoin ...
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1answer
3k views

Why is Bitcoin's unconfirmed transaction count rising and what effect does it have on the network?

I see that blockchain.info is reporting a large and steadily growing number of unconfirmed transactions. I assume that these are all transactions broadcasted to the network but never confirmed as a ...
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1answer
292 views

On-chain scaling still required with Lightning Network?

I'm wondering if/how Lightning Network relieves us of on-chain scaling on the road towards mass-level adoption. As I understand, payment broadcasts are deferred to the point in which the channel is ...
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Blockchain Recent Scaling Proposals : (Sharding, blocksize , SegWit, GHOST, Lightning, multichains, sidechains, DAGs)

What are some recent scaling proposals worth note? (Continually Updated)
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Does the entire blockchain have to be recomputed to validate a transaction?

Are transactions validated by recomputing the entire blockchain? If not, how else can it be confirmed that a bitcoin I'm attempting to transact is one that I actually had come into acquisition of ...
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1answer
59 views

Bitcoin with primitive Blockchain

Currently Bitcoin blocks are limited to 1MB and each block seems to hold roughly 1000 transactions assuming each transaction is 1KB. Much of a transactions size seems to be caused by Bitcoin's built-...
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2answers
2k views

What is the difference between on-chain scaling and off-chain scaling?

What is on-chain scaling and off-chain scaling? What is the core difference between on-chain scaling and off-chain scaling?
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Better Capacity with More Nodes

In regards to the scaling debate, transactions per second etc. I’m curious, and I don’t often see this mentioned. But why not add more nodes to the network to alleviate some of the load? I’m pretty ...
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1answer
192 views

Bitcoin fees as of 2017-10 range from $3-$10 to send. How is this going to be sustainable with an increasing price?

Sending anything less than $10 is not feasible if the bitcoin fees are greater than $3. As the Bitcoin price increases to say $10,000. The fees would be much higher. And since fees cannot be lowered ...
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1answer
2k views

Blockchain size problem

According to my understanding, the ledger/blockchain is stored on every computer (node) that partakes in the network. The beauty of this system is that it is decentralised and backed up by every ...
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1answer
215 views

Is bitcoin sustainable? [closed]

A rather dumb title, however I have question that I cant get a grip on related to bitcoin: If the amount of bitcoin is supposed to have an upper limit, what is the incentive to mine in the future if ...
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What is the maximum number of transactions per seconds on Bitcoin Cash?

What is the maximum number of transactions per seconds on Bitcoin Cash? I know that on Bitcoin (BTC) is was 7 tx/s.
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1answer
347 views

Why is there so much uncertainty with SegWit2x when it has 85%+ mining support?

I'm confused about the uncertainty and pessimism about the Bitcoin scaling debate. I see coindance https://coin.dance/blocks is signalling a 85% support for SegWit2x. As far as I know SegWit kills 2 ...
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1answer
143 views

Blocks, scaling and segwit question

Somewhat new to bitcoin, trying to understand the tech... For my understanding all the transactions go into a block, every 10 minutes the block is mined and all transactions in it are confirmed. With ...
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1answer
60 views

What is the implication of Induced Demand for Bitcoin scaling?

For the purposes of this question the working definition of Induced Demand is taken from Wikipedia: Induced demand, or latent demand, is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good ...
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1answer
261 views

Segwit: Arbitrary data storage in witness?

Let's say I want to encode the text of the King James version of the Bible into the block chain, one piece at a time (replace this with any zany idea to consume copious quantities of block space). ...
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How do Bitcoin and Litecoin compare in scalability?

Bitcoin and Litecoin are very similar, however they differ in the hash algorithm, the block interval and reward schedule. How do these characteristics impact the scalability in terms of e.g. ...
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981 views

How scalable is a Blockchain-based system?

This question as stated above is a bit vague, but let me make it a bit more clear: Recently, I have seen many services pop up that state that they are secure, fault-tolerant, trustless and scalable ...
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2answers
215 views

Which kinds of transactions show quadratic signature-hashing scaling?

It has been stated: A major problem with simple approaches to increasing the Bitcoin blocksize is that for certain transactions, signature-hashing scales quadratically rather than linearly. https:/...
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1answer
63 views

Does Bitcoin's high price make payments in stores less viable?

With bitcoins values getting so high (now is $2250/BTC) is it still viable to use bitcoins as a way of payment in stores? It's not that common now, but I thought that people would use it more with ...
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1answer
234 views

Incentives for Segwit vs BTU

I had the (appearntly wrong) impression that miners as a whole would prefer limiting the block size / scalability / TPS in order to increase fees (basically limiting the supply), and users and ...
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1answer
73 views

On the feasibility of fees

According to https://bitcoinfees.21.co/, "For the median transaction size of 226 bytes, this results in a fee of 0.678 mBTC." At the time of writing this equates to approximately $1.53US. This means ...
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Scalable implementation of Bitcoin

What reference implementations of Bitcoin are most suitable for backing a front end service on to with a high user load? Something that can be put onto our own AWS or Google Cloud hardware and ...
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1k views

What is the User Activated Softfork (UASF) proposal? How do its risks compare to hardforks?

The Bitcoin community is abuzz with discussion about shaolinfry's proposal of a UASF to activate SegWit as an alternative to the Version Bits activation. I've seen frequent and extensive discussion of ...
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How often are mining nodes updated with new transactions [duplicate]

Apologies if this has been asked, I'm a bitcoin noob. I'm having a hard time understanding how bitcoin scales. If bitcoin scales massively, to millions or billions of transactions per day, how will ...
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How would Bitcoin look like if the primary design goal was to have LN-like payments?

Today (assuming SW), we have Bitcoin, which allows us to build LN using a set of smart constructs such as HTLCs. But this is a result of a work of people trying to figure out how to take what Bitcoin ...