Questions tagged [segregated-witness]

This tag should be used for questions regarding Segregated Witness (segwit), an activated softfork that defined a new transaction format which doesn't include signatures in the transaction identifier (txid).

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25
votes
1answer
13k views

How is segwit2x different from segwit?

Today everybody got the news about the potential segwit2x adoption. However, I am trying to understand: while both of them based on the same segwit principals how they are different? Is it about the ...
18
votes
1answer
972 views

What is “segregated witness” and how can it improve network scalability?

I've just heard about it, and it is claimed to be a "turning point" in the block-size debate. What is "segregated witness?" how does it work? How can it be used for improving network scalability? ...
17
votes
1answer
2k views

How is SegWit a soft fork?

Reading this section of BIP144, I noticed the followng statement: Parsers supporting this BIP will be able to distinguish between the old serialization format (without the witness) and this one. ...
16
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2answers
4k views

Bitcoin Segwit was released in the summer of 2017 to reduce the blocksize congestion. Why is it still congested?

Segwit was released in the summer of 2017 to resolve the network congestion. Why is the network still congested? Didn't it enable 1MB blocks to become 2MB blocks? Or do you have to wait for wallet ...
16
votes
2answers
405 views

How thoroughly has Segregated Witness been tested?

I've encountered claims that Segregated Witness was "not really tested" and is being "rushed". It is my understanding that SegWit had been running on Elements for more than half a year already, and ...
15
votes
1answer
11k views

How to generate SegWit address

How do I generate a SegWit address using Bitcoin Core CLI? Also will I be able to redeem those outputs and send them to a "legacy" address? If so, will this second transaction be accepted by older, ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the User Activated Softfork (UASF) proposal? How do its risks compare to hardforks?

The Bitcoin community is abuzz with discussion about shaolinfry's proposal of a UASF to activate SegWit as an alternative to the Version Bits activation. I've seen frequent and extensive discussion of ...
12
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1answer
1k views

How many more transactions per second will be possible with SegWit?

On a percentage basis compared to the current theoretical limit how many more transactions per second will be possible after SegWit? Will the answer to number 1 scale linearly with block size ...
12
votes
1answer
510 views

Litecoin has had SegWit for one month, what impact did that have?

Litecoin activated SegWit about one month ago on May 10th (block 1201536). What impact did the SegWit activation on Litecoin have? How many blocks have a witness commitment? How many SegWit ...
11
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3answers
2k views

How to track Segregated Witness adoption rates

How can I find out what the current Segregated witness adoption rate is, so as to see how it is progressing towards the 95% readiness required for it to activate.
11
votes
1answer
295 views

What are the segregated witness tradeoffs?

Segregated witnesses sound like a win in a lot of ways, I'm just trying to understand how they apply to scalability. If I understand correctly, there is a second Merkle tree of witnesses mirroring the ...
10
votes
1answer
3k views

With 100% segwit transactions, what would be the max number of transaction confirmation possible on a block?

With 100% segwit transactions, what would be the max number of transaction confirmation possible on a block? And, how many utxo can be updated by a block full of segwit transactions?
9
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1answer
2k views

Is SegWit a blocksize increase or more efficient use of blockspace?

This question gets asked frequently on reddit, and I think it would be beneficial to have a canonical answer here: Is SegWit a blocksize increase or more efficient use of blockspace?
9
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2answers
2k views

Where is the Signature stored in a SegWit transaction?

I understand that SegWit makes transaction blockdata smaller, by not storing the signature in the Block, so that can fit more transactions in 1MB. This is because the signature is not anymore stored ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

How to get addresses from scriptPubKey in segwit transactions?

I'm running through raw transaction data, and I'd like to be able to gather addresses (where possible). So far, I've made this diagram to help me understand when it's possible to figure out addresses ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Bech32 conversion to legacy P2PKH?

Electrum now generates Bech32 addresses for SegWit wallets. Example: bc1qnntcclssmtuvfw2te7q49lzvw67cfvpzxger4j Pubkey: 023f1b3421c6ae0c1758834d40806c2418194b507be261fa343a0636653f3ec75b If I ...
8
votes
3answers
677 views

How would I explain SegWit to a non-technical friend?

How can I explain the potential ease of scaling and feature benefits of Segregated Witness to a non technical friend? How can I explain the potential drawbacks of Segregated Witness in a non ...
8
votes
1answer
806 views

Why include the Segregated Witness Merkle Root in the input field of the coinbase transaction?

I just read this article to understand SegWit better: https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/segregated-witness-part-how-a-clever-hack-could-significantly-increase-bitcoin-s-potential-1450553618/ There'...
8
votes
1answer
7k views

Difference between a SegWit address and a P2SH address

Let there be an address 3ABCDEFGHJKDJHDH.... How can I understand if it's a SegWit address or a MultiSig address?
8
votes
1answer
970 views

How do blocks signal whether it supports segwit for the 95% threshold?

Ideally, I'd also like to see graphs that indicate how close we are to segwit adoption and the number of minimum blocks we are away from actual segwit adoption.
7
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2answers
1k views

How does SegWit reduce transaction size, when the signature is simply moved to another part of the transaction?

This video explains that the signature is moved out of the input section and moved to the new one called the witness. From what I can tell, the witness signature is still contained in this transaction ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

What the difference between old segwit (3) and new segwit address (bc)?

i'm not that kind of person who understands cryptography and math, can you tell me simply the main purpose of new segwit address? are transactions fee the same for new segwit (bc1)? instead of "Old ...
7
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3answers
6k views

How to see the number of segwit transactions in a block

Now that segwit is active I am interested to know how many segwit transactions are in each block. The Blockchain explorers I've looked at don't seem to be tracking this info. Is there any service ...
7
votes
1answer
621 views

When does signaling for SegWit start exactly?

I thought that signaling for SegWit (and other softforks deployed by means of BIP0009) would start with the first block after the Starttime defined in the BIP is reached. Someone claimed that it only ...
7
votes
1answer
207 views

Why are 0.13.1 Core nodes connecting only to Witness (e.g. 0.13.1) nodes?

I have my Core 0.13.1 node configured to connect to 16 nodes, and invariably I see it connected only to other 0.13.1 nodes, even though, according to bitnodes leaderboard, these nodes form a minority. ...
7
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2answers
350 views

segregated witness adoption

What happens if segregated witness never reaches the 95% adoption threshold from miners? Will it still take effect for those transactions where the miners have adopted it?
6
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3answers
1k views

Does a segwit based side chain like the lightning network allow for fractional reserve?

I'm confused. I've watched the video The Lightning Network Explained (Litecoin/Bitcoin), and read the following comments by Craig Wright: This occurs because schemes such as segregated witness ...
6
votes
3answers
275 views

If SegWit only increases the capacity to only 2-4x only. Wouldn't we have the same issue in a few years again?

If I understand correctly. SegWit is one of the solutions to the full 1MB block problem that doesn't require a hard fork. But I've read this only increases the 1MB to maybe about 2-4x only. If that is ...
6
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2answers
1k views

How do transaction costs compare between Bech32 addresses and legacy Bitcoin addresses?

Now that Electrum 3 supports Bech32 addresses for segwit, when sending coins to a legacy address are fees higher or cheaper?
6
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1answer
1k views

Will SegWit allow for m of n multisig with very large n and m?

By reading this answer, I understand that in m-of-n multisig addresses, m and n are limited by the maximum size allowed by the P2SH redeemScript (i.e. 520 bytes). However, in this section of BIP141, ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What does a segregated witness transaction look like?

I'd like to learn how segregated witness works, and I thought the raw transaction data would be a good place to start If this is the structure of current transactions: version | [inputcount] {[txid] ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

How do I enable segwit in Bitcoin Core 13.1?

Bitcoin Core 13.1 includes the segregated witness (segwit) soft-fork. The release notes say: Segregated witness (segwit) is a soft fork that, if activated, will allow transaction-producing software ...
6
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2answers
1k views

generate a P2SH-P2WSH address and spend output sent to it

I am attempting generate a P2SH-P2WSH address and then spend an output sent to this address, but when I attempt signing I receive Invalid private key error from bitcoind (v0.15.1.0). So where am I ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Requirements to accept and send SegWit transactions?

I roughly understand how SegWit works, but not the details, got a few practical questions. If I understood correctly there are separate 'SegWit addresses'. How does that work, do they look like ...
6
votes
1answer
659 views

Transaction verification by miner VS full node with & without SegWit

I'm trying to fill a few gaps in my understanding of transaction verification and would appreciate any insight. Without SegWit Miners broadcast new blocks which contain the signature(s) with every ...
6
votes
1answer
632 views

What is the precise definition of “witness program”?

BIP 141 uses the term "witness program" extensively without, apparently, adhering to a consistent definition. From the heading "Witness Program": A scriptPubKey (or redeemScript as defined in ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

SegWit transaction fee/byte

For transaction not spending SegWit outputs it's straightforward: if I have 1000 Satoshi fee set for 500 byte raw transaction, I end up with 2 s/b fee. How about transaction containing witness data? ...
5
votes
2answers
204 views

Is there a difference between bytes and virtual bytes (vbytes)?

In an Optech newsletter, size is referred to using vbytes. Is there a difference between vbytes and bytes? If so, what is the difference?
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Could you provide an example of a SegWit transaction?

I'm looking for a transaction ID of a non-coinbase SegWit transaction on the Bitcoin network. Could you show me one? Google doesn't seem to do the trick.
5
votes
1answer
2k views

How does Segwit prevent ASICBOOST?

I know that ASIC BOOST exploits the fact that the blockheaders are not a multiple of 64 bytes, but what is the change in Segwit that prevents this? Are they always a multiple of 64 bytes now for ...
5
votes
3answers
246 views

Why is the witness data fee discounted by a factor of four?

I've read that it encourages users to consolidate UTXO sets. How would it be doing that?
5
votes
2answers
275 views

Can unupgraded nodes that accept zero confirmation be fooled after SegWit?

Considering the following scenario: After deployment of SegWit, there remain two old clients (with software that is unaware of SegWit) A & B. A funds a transaction to pay B using a SegWit ...
5
votes
1answer
371 views

Can I mix P2PKH and P2WPKH inputs in the same transaction?

I'm trying to increase my knowledge of bech32 and SegWit and to that end am working my way through this explanation. Here's a hypothetical situation I'm trying to understand. Let's say Jamal has ...
5
votes
2answers
391 views

Has UTXO selection methods changed since activation of Segwit?

Before Segwit, transactions were penalized higher fees for having more inputs than outputs due to the input size being larger despite those transactions actually decreasing the global UTXO set. Segwit ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Which block explorers recognize bech32 addresses?

At this time, blockchain.info doesn't. Neither does blockchair or blockcypher.
5
votes
2answers
291 views

Why didn't Bitcoin implement segwit in the first place?

Why didn't Bitcoin implement segwit in the first place? Why and how does non-segwit Bitcoin enable a miner to change a transaction's txid? From Mastering Bitcoin ch. 7 § "Transaction identifiers": ...
5
votes
1answer
410 views

What are the standard formats of transaction outputs?

A transaction output can have the type Pay to public key hash, P2PKH, where the ScriptPubKey field has the format: 76 a9 14 <20-byte hash of pubkey> 88 ac Pay to script hash, P2SH, used for e.g. ...
5
votes
1answer
582 views

How would this normal raw transaction appear if it was a raw segwit transaction?

How would this raw bitcoin transaction appear if it was a raw segwit transaction? https://blockchain.info/tx/ff8766ec873ff55cc0ac17dee7b379a4efa2a5c83dabdd9a30287c7761ad55d5 This TX Raw is: ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Segwit address creation

I'm unable to create a segwit address in Bitcoin Core 15.0.1 64-bit Windows I have tried multiple times but keep getting the same error. The following is the output from the console $ getnewaddress ...
5
votes
1answer
647 views

Why does BIP141 define both virtual transaction size and weight?

Why does BIP 141 (segwit) define both virtual transaction size and weight? Weight seems to be just four times virtual transaction size (or vice versa, depending on what you define first). Why are ...