Questions tagged [signature]

This tag should be used for questions regarding digital signatures. A digital signature proves that the owner of a private key produced or endorsed a given message. These are used in transactions to prove that an output can be spent in a transaction.

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207 views

Getting Error "Unable to sign input, invalid stack size (possibly missing key)"

I have created a key from using coinstring, and then imported it into my wallet. Then I ran: bitcoin-cli signrawtransactionwithkey "$rawtxhex" "[\"$mykey$\"]" But it results in: Unable to sign ...
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85 views

Is possible extract the original script P2MS from the transaction locked with the P2SH address?

This is a stupid question because if the P2SH contains the hash160 (and the hash160 contains the sha256) of the P2MS doesn't possible return to the original hex P2MS. So, but for verifying the P2SH I ...
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164 views

How to Validate Signature with SigScript length 8b?

I created a raw Transaction: ...
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1answer
169 views

how difficult is it to generating an ECDSA (or Schnorr) signature with a certain number of leading zeros?

If both the public key and the private key are known ahead of time (public knowledge), and the goal is to choose a message/nonce that generates a signature with, for example, a certain number of ...
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1answer
74 views

Multiple inputs with one signature

From this question I've learned that a transaction with N inputs requires N sign operations. But what if there a huge amount of inputs? E.g. I have a coffee shop and I sell 5000 pcs coffee every day ...
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1answer
636 views

Will Schnorr Multi-signatures completely replace ECDSA?

I stumbled upon the fact that schnorr signatures will most probably replace the current ECDSA system in a future BIP. Is it worth learning about ECDSA or this will become obsolete/useless/confusing ...
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2answers
736 views

Difference between Sign Message and Sign Transaction

Using "Sign Message" one can prove ownership of an address. This happens by signing a human-readable string using the private key belonging to the address. The owner then provides the address, message ...
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90 views

How to sign an Altcoin transaction manually with 2 inputs and 2 outputs

So i'm working with the altcoin denarius which has the following raw TX structure. This is a transaction I am try to sign: Original: ...
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1answer
56 views

Source and (mis)handling of the private key for a basic tx

I'm looking to get "hands on" with signing, however when I adapt Runeks' thorough answer at https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/a/5241/89798 my code invariably fails reporting that I've used the wrong ...
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1answer
738 views

Verifying a bitcoin Signature and what is the transaction data that is signed?

Given a bitcoin transaction where it is able to redeem it's UTXO's, how can I verify in Java if the signature is actually a valid signature or not. I was trying to use the Bouncy Castle library where ...
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190 views

Bitcoin Transaction Generation: Signature Verification Error

I have the following raw transaction (basic P2PKH) which I am trying to send to the Bitcoin Testnet 3: ...
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1answer
50 views

What is the relationship between the Digital Signature and the Public Key

So, I can see this is in the unlocking script: <Cafe Signature> <Cafe Public Key> Taken from mastering bitcoin. What is the difference between the two? I don`t find it easy to google.
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403 views

How to calculate P2WSH signatures with OP_CODESEPARATOR?

I read the bip143, but didn't understand how to calculate the scriptCode of p2wsh. bip143 told us: A new transaction digest algorithm is defined, but only applicable to sigops in version 0 witness ...
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1answer
429 views

I tried to recover the public key from the signature, but I failed

I used data that comes from https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0143.mediawiki#p2sh-p2wpkh. It is easy to know how to get sigHash. But when I try to recover public key, everything out off ...
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1answer
46 views

How to check a signature on an arbitrary message?

I'm looking to have a p2sh transaction that inside the redeem script there is OP_CHECKSIG (or any other op-code) that verifies a signature on an arbitrary message (not a transaction). I have been ...
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2answers
109 views

Raw SegWit TX look solid and verifies, but is rejected. Need help figuring out why

Consider the following transaction expressed as hex: ...
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1answer
203 views

P2WPKH - which private key is used to generate signature?

I am looking at the BIP143 P2WPKH example. I am kind of following until the generation of the sigHash: c37af31116d1b27caf68aae9e3ac82f1477929014d5b917657d0eb49478cb670 but then that is used to ...
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1answer
140 views

ScriptSig does not validate with seemingly valid signature

I am trying to build raw transactions from scratch to improve my understanding. For comparison I am using the hexoutput from https://coinb.in/ as I can choose Testnet on there. I am trying to ...
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1answer
83 views

Why is a library's signature of a segwit tx different from Bitcoin Core signature?

I have been writing a (yet another) Bitcoin python library primarily for educational purposes; for me and my students. Signing a non-segwit transaction results in a signed tx that is identical to ...
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1answer
78 views

How does Bitcoin makes sure that nobody can duplicate a transaction?

I understand that when creating a transaction, you send in data, the hash of that data, and a signature that is created using the hash of the data and your private key. However, what is stopping ...
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2answers
621 views

How to manually sign a transaction with multiple inputs and multiple outputs?

I'm developing transaction constructor, but i faced several problems. To some of which i found answer in How to sign a transaction with multiple inputs?, for the rest i'll try to explain: When we ...
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1answer
73 views

What is the rationale for inclusion of previous amount in SegWit signing process?

When spending a P2PKH output, the "data" we hash only includes the output script from previous transaction but when spending a P2WPKH (the new serialization) we also include the amount field from ...
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2answers
1k views

Why did repeated "R" values occur in Bitcoin transactions before?

Please explain why earlier the repeated values of "R" occurred in Bitcoin transactions. For example, this transaction has a repetition of the value "R": https://www.blockchain.com/btc/tx/...
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1answer
150 views

What is the O(n^2) signature hashing problem and how does SegWit solves it?

One of the many benefits of SegWit is that it solves the O(n^2) signature hashing problem. What exactly is the O(n^2) hashing problem and how segregating signatures to separate witness field solve it?
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2answers
729 views

How to extract raw 64 byte EC signature from an ASN1/DER encoded signature (which ranges from 70 - 72 bytes)

I see that my ASN1/DER signature contains the individual r and s values, is there a way to derive the generic 64byte signature? edit: Ive looked through the DER/ASN1 spec, seems that what Im looking ...
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1answer
750 views

If I set assumevalid=0 after syncing the blockchain will Bitcoin Core go back and validate historical blocks?

I originally synced my node using the Bitcoin Core default assumevalid value. If I set -assumevalid=0 in bitcoin.conf and restart my node, will my node go back and validate historical blocks?
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1answer
159 views

Following SegWit implementation, is BIP-146 signalling and implementation still on the docket?

Is BIP 146, which defines using the low S value, still on the docket to be signalled and implemented given that SegWit fixed the txid malleability issue by moving the witness outside the transaction? ...
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2answers
104 views

Public Addresses: '3' vs '1' in front [Bitcoin]

I just wanted to confirm, is it true that for a bitcoin (public) address it should always have a '1' in front of it. For certain transactions though I see that there is a '3' in front. How is this ...
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1answer
737 views

Low-s value in bitcoin signature

What are the problems related in using the "normal" ( bigger than N/2) value of the s number in transaction signature and why we use the lower one? Is it about the math behind the ecdsa?
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0answers
38 views

Script and DER in P2PKH

Im trying to figure out the script and DER In P2PKH, the "first part (scriptsig)" push in stack (<sig><pubK>) because is it DER? Instead the "second part (scriptPubKey)" you can map the ...
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2answers
665 views

How can my private key be revealed if I use the same nonce while generating the signature?

I know it is well understood that it is not a good practice to use the same nonce while generating the signatures, but I am not getting the math right. Assume I have some UTXOs that are controlled ...
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1answer
94 views

Signature digital algorithm in bitcoin, to what will it change in the future?

in follow-up to the question: 85202 There, @Ugam Kamat wrote ""ECDSA is the first thing that can get vulnerable with quantum computer. signature will need to move to post quantum world much before ...
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1answer
51 views

Destination address(es) when redeeming an HTLC

Starting from this text at https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Script: "The script for a typical Bitcoin transfer to destination Bitcoin address D simply encumbers future spending of the bitcoins with two ...
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1answer
91 views

Why is the Schnorr verification formula working and actually verifying the validity of a signature?

Reading the bottom of page 2 of the Musig Paper we can find that a Schnorr Signature for a cyclic Group G of prime order p with generator g is a tuple (R,s) where R = gr for a random secret r and s=r+...
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1answer
197 views

Bitcoin Signatures are susceptible to quantum attacks - how exactly and with what practical impact? [duplicate]

@PieterWuille wrote in another thread: "" The hashing algorithm is probably the most quantum-resistant piece of cryptography right now in Bitcoin. Barring any specific breaks, SHA256 and RIPEMD160 ...
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1answer
154 views

How can you calculate the inverse of S component of signature, while you cannot do it in ECC to calculate private key from public key?

When verifying the signature in bitcoin, we calculate S^(-1) * hash(m) * G + S^(-1) * R * pub_key and verify that this is equal to the temporary public key. Given the same logic, why can't we use it ...
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1answer
115 views

OP_CHECKSIG NULLFAIL with btcdeb

I'm using btcdeb to understand script. I pick a old random P2PKH transaction form mainnet, and paste unlocking script e locking script inside. I know that this script is ok, because I can check on ...
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1answer
404 views

Why hash witness script instead of pubkey script in signature?

When a segwit input is signed, the signature will commit to the witness script (or a p2pkh-like script in case of p2wpkh). This is specified in BIP143: For P2WPKH witness program, the scriptCode ...
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1answer
138 views

Are sipa's standardized schnorr signatures incompatible with blind signatures?

Here, sipa proposes a standardization of schnorr signatures: https://github.com/sipa/bips/blob/bip-schnorr/bip-schnorr.mediawiki For example, sign() returns Sig{R,s} which can be encoded with 64 ...
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1answer
59 views

Would signature aggregation reduce the largest feasible blocksize

If a Schnorr signature aggregation scheme were to be integrated into Bitcoin. Would the reduction in witness data versus non witness data (need less bytes for a signature therefore witness data usage ...
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1answer
36 views

which was the purpose of changing the signature of a TX? or it was just a bug before segwit?

Was there any purpose in changing the signature of a transaction? Or it was a bug before segregated witness? Does segregated witness disable some wanted feature?
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2answers
2k views

Nonce usage in ECDSA signing algorithm

I'm trying to understand the signing function secp256k1_ecdsa_sig_sign(), and I'm curious about the nonce usage here. static int secp256k1_ecdsa_sig_sign(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context *ctx, ...
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1answer
564 views

tiny-secp256k1 and ECDSA signing determinism

I noticed in bitcoin when using the tiny-secp256k1 library to sign the signature for a signature hash of an input, the signature is always the same. However in other ECDSA secp256k1 libraries (im ...
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1answer
198 views

Representation of coordinates in signature. OpenSSL

I want to calculate the v-value from the signature obtained using the OpenSSL ECDSA_do_sign function. I found that this value is calculated using the parity of y-coordinate of r. Here I also found ...
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1answer
627 views

Bitcoin ECDSA signature in the compact format

I would like to understand how to get Bitcoin ECDSA signature in a compact format, when it's exactly 65 bytes. In the bitcoin-core repository, secp256k1_ecdsa_recoverable_signature_load is ...
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2answers
1k views

How to determine first byte (recovery ID) for signatures (message signing)?

I do realize that in bitcoin when we return the signature result for signing a message the first byte includes information for recovering the public key required for verification using a formula like ...
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1answer
705 views

Why are the inputs of Bitcoin transactions signed?

This is my understanding of what a transaction looks like: inputs: input0: txid: <funding tx0 TXID> outputID: <output ID of UTXO in the funding tx0> scriptSig: <...
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1answer
200 views

NBitcoin get signature, use spending P2SH transaction with non-standard script

After creating a new NBitcoin transaction (with a single pay-to-script hash input and multiple outputs), is there any way to calculate the transaction signature and manually put it in the inputs[0]....
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1answer
79 views

Multi-sig signature computation

I don't understand, how multi-sig signatures are generated. I've seen that inputs redeeming a multi-sig output, can be signed and signed over repeatedly, with different private keys using bitcoind's ...
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3answers
306 views

allowed DER encoding format violations for signatures in bitcoin: implications for libraries?

I have recently changed verification code in python-bitcointx to use libsecp256k1 library. In the python-bitcoinlib code (that python-bitcointx is a derivative of), openssl functions were used for ...

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