Questions tagged [taproot]

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What is the point of miner signaling in a soft fork activation mechanism? What should the threshold be on miner signaling?

What is the point of miner signaling in a soft fork activation mechanism? What should the threshold be on miner signaling? The second part of this question was asked by devrandom on IRC. A question on ...
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1answer
483 views

What makes cross input signature aggregation complicated to implement?

What makes cross input signature aggregation complicated to implement? Other than for design space reasons why didn't it make it into BIP-Taproot? (Key aggregation within one input can be achieved ...
3
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1answer
72 views

What is the difference between key aggregation and signature aggregation?

What is the difference between key aggregation (e.g. MuSig) and signature aggregation? Many people (including myself) have in the past used these terms interchangeably. Why is it important to be ...
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2answers
186 views

What is the benefit of forced signaling in a soft fork activation mechanism?

What is the benefit of forced signaling in a soft fork activation mechanism? e.g. the MUST_SIGNAL phase in revised BIP 8. I understand the benefits of setting lockinontimeout (LOT) to true (some of ...
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1answer
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Should I be worried that bitcoincore.org now suddenly only provides an “unsigned” Bitcoin Core installer?

My security script for downloading and verifying new versions of Bitcoin Core barked at me the other day, when the new v0.21.1 was released. (Which still is nowhere to be found on bitcoin.org, BTW.) ...
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0answers
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Taproot block version [duplicate]

In block 681543 Slush Pool had mined the proper taproot signalling (bit 2 in block version) block but the version wasn't the default 0x20000004 with a version base 0x20000000 but 0x3fff0004. Does it ...
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2answers
112 views

Is there network split risk for Taproot activation with two releases (Bitcoin Core and Bitcoin Taproot)?

In this article from Aaron van Wirdum he states there is a risk of a network split with two releases (Bitcoin Core and Bitcoin Taproot) not following exactly the same activation mechanism(s)? Is this ...
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2answers
83 views

How will upgrades to Bitcoin such as Taproot help allow increase of block sizes?

Bitcoin's block size, hardcoded at 1MB, has been limited by the capabilities of its weakest full nodes. The block size limits the number of transactions on the blockchain outside of Layer 2 solutions, ...
2
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1answer
353 views

How can I follow the progress of miner signaling for Taproot activation during the Speedy Trial deployment?

How can I follow the progress of miner signaling for Taproot activation during the Speedy Trial deployment? Can I use bitcoin-cli to track the signaling progress? This was asked by pox on Mastodon and ...
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1answer
71 views

How long has it taken for BIP-Taproot to go from draft specification to activation?

It seems BIP-Taproot has been discussed for years now. How long has it taken to go from draft specification to potential activation?
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1answer
90 views

Can Taproot be used to commit arbitrary data to chain without any additional footprint?

A common way of committing some data to the chain is through an OP_RETURN with some hash. Doing this marks an output unspendable, but the output still requires some footprint (and cost) on the chain ...
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0answers
40 views

How are taproot scripts represented in general?

I'm pretty familiar with the opcode style of writing down scripts. I can understand the stack-based language nature of bitcoin script where you can write down different script spend paths via ifs like ...
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2answers
835 views

Will “Taproot” replace Lightning Network?

Can somebody explain to me if Taproot will fix the issues that Lightning Network solves, without the Lightning Network? That is, near-zero fees, privacy and fast settlements? Will Taproot allow me to ...
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1answer
135 views

Who would benefit from Taproot deployment?

In the discussion of activation parameters for Taproot, a Bitcoin Core contributor stated that "Taproot would only benefit 5% of the users" citing that it would especially benefit complex ...
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0answers
26 views

Using key aggregation (multsig) in P2TR script path spends

I know that it is possible to create a 2-2 multsig using Taproot by combining both private keys into one public key and defining that as the key path spend. I also know that it is possible to use ...
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96 views

Taproot and Large multisigs

I have seen lot of people saying that taproot is only for large multisigs used in few projects or companies. BlueMatt mentioned similar thing in last Taproot activation meeting: 13:01 < BlueMatt&...
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1answer
32 views

Why is there no forced signaling during the LOCKED_IN phase of BIP 8(LOT=true)?

Why is there no forced signaling during the LOCKED_IN phase of BIP 8(LOT=true)? During the MUST_SIGNAL phase of BIP 8(LOT=true) a threshold of miners have to signal. The next phase after MUST_SIGNAL ...
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1answer
61 views

Could Bitcoin Core leave the lockinontimeout parameter choice entirely to Bitcoin Core users and not set a default?

There doesn't appear to be overwhelming consensus on the lockinontimeout (LOT) parameter for the Taproot BIP 8 activation mechanism. I know some would strongly argue against doing this but could ...
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1answer
39 views

Why does the threshold apply to the MUST_SIGNAL phase in revised BIP 8 (lot=true)? Why doesn't it enforce 100 percent signaling?

BIP 8 states that: During the MUST_SIGNAL phase, if (2016 - threshold) blocks in the retarget period have already failed to signal, any further blocks that fail to signal are invalid. Why doesn't it ...
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1answer
77 views

If I delay upgrading to the latest Bitcoin Core version post Taproot activation does my node ever verify early Taproot spends?

Let's assume the Taproot soft fork is activated in June 2021. I continue to run an old version of Bitcoin Core (not enforcing Taproot rules) in July 2021 and so my full node treats valid Taproot ...
4
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1answer
288 views

Activation of SegWit v1

The segregated witness soft fork of August 2017 included a versioning field which would allow for future incrementation. Anthony Towns has recently posted an early draft of the proposal for the SegWit ...
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1answer
169 views

What are the risks of a lower-than-95% activation threshold for soft forks (particularly SegWit)?

95% seems exceptionally conservative, especially given the evidence of vetoing by a subset of Bitcoin miners. What risks does, say, 60% over a longer activation period hold vs 95% for SegWit?
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1answer
154 views

What problems identified with bech32 addresses have been resolved with the updated bech32m?

What problems identified with bech32 addresses have been resolved with the updated bech32m? I am aware of one problem with the original bech32, namely length extension mutation weakness but I don't ...
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1answer
49 views

How do I debug Taproot functional tests using pdb?

I am looking at the some of the Taproot functional tests such as feature_taproot.py to review the open Taproot PR. I would like to use pdb to debug these tests. Can you provide some guidance on how to ...
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1answer
1k views

Why does Taproot require a new address format?

Dawid Ciężarkiewicz asked on Twitter: Hey #bitcoin ers. I'm trying to figure out why taproot needs a new address format, as I missed it. If you have a good link or something - please share. I thought ...
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1answer
27 views

How to calculate Tapscript sigops budget?

Sigops limits have been changed to budget in Tapscript. BIP341 defines the budget calculation method as follows. The budget equals 50 + the total serialized size in bytes of the transaction input's ...
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1answer
41 views

Broadcasting deprecated block version

With the recent addition of Binance to the group of miners who will accept taproot, I wonder what would happen if despite a total of more than 99% of the network accepting it, a miner still doesn't ...
4
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1answer
238 views

I keep hearing about MAST, what is it and what does it do?

So, somebody asked me about MAST yesterday. Apparently, it's formalized in BIP114 – Merkelized Abstract Syntax Trees. I couldn't explain what it was and what advantages it'll bring us. What are ...
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1answer
27 views

BLS signature verification?

Is it possible to perform BLS signature verification with upcoming Taproot/Tapscript proposal?
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3answers
433 views

What are some interesting applications of Taproot “smart contracts”?

From a strictly technical perspective, MAST makes a lot of sense. However, understanding it in the context of Taproot/Tapscript does require prior knowledge in Merkle Trees and hash functions. What ...
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1answer
42 views

Advanced math operations in TapScript?

Hence BIP 342 proposes to enable opcodes like OP_MOD, OP_DIV, OP_MUL is it possible to perform advanced math operations like EC point addition/multiplication in a script size of up to 10kB?
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1answer
63 views

Taproot - Eliminating Key Path

I want to struct a transaction output the key-path of which I want to be eliminated, so enforcing only the script path. In order to eliminate key-path, in my opinion, I should set "Internal ...
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1answer
66 views

Are P2SH transactions with disabled opcodes relayed/mined?

Many OPCODES like OP_AND, OP_CAT, OP_SUBSTR are disabled as described in https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Script. Although, with Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 Gavin Andresen proposed "any Script" in P2SH ...
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2answers
97 views

Given OP_VER was never used, is disabled and not considered useful can its meaning be stripped and it be made OP_SUCCESS?

Given OP_VER (0x62) was never used onchain, is disabled and is not considered useful can its meaning be stripped and it be made OP_SUCCESS for the purposes of introducing a new different opcode in ...
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3answers
544 views

What are Merklized Alternative Script Trees?

I have seen the acronym MAST floating around. I saw that it stands for Merklized Alternative Script Trees, but what does that mean? In what context do they appear and what can they be used for?
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1answer
194 views

Would a Schnorr PubKey be a different length than a Taproot PubKey like P2WPKH and P2WSH?

A P2WPKH PubKey is shorter than a P2WSH PubKey. Would this also be the case that a Taproot PubKey is larger than a Schnorr PubKey? If so, wouldn't people be incentivised to use the Schnorr PubKey and ...
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1answer
34 views

How do I tweak the bip340_test_vectors to check that signature verification fails for other test vectors?

I now understand why some of the bip340_test_vectors fail signature verification. I would like to tweak these test vectors to check that signature verification fails for other test vectors. How do I ...
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1answer
43 views

What is stopping a Taproot spend following old Taproot rules (initially treated as anyone-can-spend) pre-activation creating a re-org post activation?

This question is similar to this Signet question on Signet nodes enforcing different Taproot rules (old and new) pre mainnet activation. Instead it is regarding how a valid Taproot spend on mainnet ...
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1answer
113 views

I'm digging further into the open Taproot PR. Can you explain the bip340_test_vectors?

I'm digging further into the open Taproot PR. I found these bip340_test_vectors. They have secret keys, public keys, aux_rand (auxiliary randomness), message, signature and whether the signature ...
2
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1answer
53 views

Who will the first adopters of Taproot be (assuming it is activated at some stage)? What incentives are there to start using it straight away?

Adoption of SegWit by users and companies after it was activated was slow. Should we expect adoption of Taproot to be slow also (assuming it is activated at some stage)? Who will the first adopters of ...
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1answer
228 views

What are the different upgradeability features in the BIP-Taproot (BIP 341) proposal?

What are the different upgradability features in the BIP-Taproot (BIP 341) proposal? Why are there so many upgradability paths? Is there something an annex can do that a leaf version can't? This ...
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1answer
251 views

I would like to dig into the open Taproot PR to understand it, test it and possibly even review it. Any advice or recommendations?

I would like to dig into the open Taproot PR (PR #19953) to understand it, test it and possibly even review it. Any advice or recommendations?
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1answer
252 views

I want to create a P2TR (pay-to-taproot) address but I just need a key path spend, not a script path spend. How do I create the P2TR address?

I want to create a P2TR (pay-to-taproot) address but I just want access to the key path spend, I have no use for the script path spend in this specific example. Do I hash an arbitrary string to use as ...
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1answer
101 views

Can we experiment on Signet with multiple proposed soft forks whilst maintaining the ability of full nodes to validate the Signet chain?

One of the goals of Signet is to test proposed soft forks before they are activated on mainnet. Not only does this mean proposed soft forks such as Taproot that at the time of writing (August 2020) ...
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1answer
56 views

Could CHECKSIGADD be used on new ECDSA multisignatures instead of CHECKMULTISIG?

The proposed Taproot soft fork (BIP 342) defines the new opcode OP_CHECKSIGADD to verify Schnorr multisignatures whilst OP_CHECKMULTISIG (and OP_CHECKMULTISIGVERIFY) are disabled for Taproot spends (...
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2answers
146 views

What are “leaf versions” in Taproot?

What are "leaf versions", when do you upgrade a version, how many versions are there and how do they differ from segwit versions?
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1answer
230 views

In theory could we skip the proposed Taproot soft fork, activate Simplicity instead and use Simplicity to write the equivalent of Taproot scripts?

In theory could we skip the proposed Taproot soft fork, activate Simplicity instead and use Simplicity to write the equivalent of Taproot scripts? Or does Simplicity need more development and ...
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1answer
32 views

Is there already reached consensus on network upgrades like Taproot, Submarine Swaps?

I have read about some very interesting new protocol amendments. I am not asking for their explanations, but would be great if anyone explained their current status, if they are still considered to ...
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1answer
221 views

What are the sizes of single-sig and 2-of-3 multisig taproot inputs?

There was a Twitter discussion about the sizes of inputs and Taproot came up. What are the input sizes for Taproot inputs? Please cover both the key path spend (single-sig or default spend) and 2-of-...
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2answers
387 views

Could Taproot create larger security risks or even hinder future protocol adjustments re Quantum threats?

I am quoting here a user named "blk014" who responded to Pieter's Taproot tweets from 24JAN. I find this user's comments very interesting and would like to ask a developer expert how much of a ...