Questions tagged [taproot]

Taproot is an upcoming Bitcoin softfork designed to improve scripting and multisignature capabilities.

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13
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1answer
612 views

Musig Signature Interactivity

2 Questions: Why is Musig signing always interactive? Let's say I have a Musig wallet where keys are stored in secure locations with no internet access. What are some methods to sign from these ...
8
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2answers
554 views

Should the Bitcoin Core wallet (or any wallet) prevent users from sending funds to a Taproot address pre activation?

The Bitcoin Core wallet prevents mainnet Taproot descriptors from being imported pre activation (November 2021) as a safeguard. However, you can send mainnet Bitcoin to a Taproot (P2TR) address pre ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Why does Taproot require a new address format?

Dawid Ciężarkiewicz asked on Twitter: Hey #bitcoin ers. I'm trying to figure out why taproot needs a new address format, as I missed it. If you have a good link or something - please share. I thought ...
8
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1answer
250 views

In theory could we skip the proposed Taproot soft fork, activate Simplicity instead and use Simplicity to write the equivalent of Taproot scripts?

In theory could we skip the proposed Taproot soft fork, activate Simplicity instead and use Simplicity to write the equivalent of Taproot scripts? Or does Simplicity need more development and ...
7
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2answers
1k views

What is this unusual transaction in the Bitcoin blockchain?

I found a transaction in the Bitcoin blockchain. The first output is unspent and has an abnormal Pkscript. What is this output and why does this output address have no transaction and balance on it? ...
7
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1answer
2k views

Should I be worried that bitcoincore.org now suddenly only provides an “unsigned” Bitcoin Core installer?

My security script for downloading and verifying new versions of Bitcoin Core barked at me the other day, when the new v0.21.1 was released. (Which still is nowhere to be found on bitcoin.org, BTW.) ...
7
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1answer
266 views

What are the different upgradeability features in the BIP-Taproot (BIP 341) proposal?

What are the different upgradability features in the BIP-Taproot (BIP 341) proposal? Why are there so many upgradability paths? Is there something an annex can do that a leaf version can't? This ...
7
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1answer
145 views

Support for P2WSH-wrapped P2TR addresses

Given that Taproot addresses use a new SegWit version and a new address encoding (bech32m), it's reasonable to expect a transition from the ecosystem to this new address version similar to what we saw ...
6
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3answers
811 views

What are Merklized Alternative Script Trees?

I have seen the acronym MAST floating around. I saw that it stands for Merklized Alternative Script Trees, but what does that mean? In what context do they appear and what can they be used for?
6
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2answers
141 views

What kind of privacy does Taproot give bitcoin?

I understand that confidential transactions hide the amounts sent and received. But what does the new taproot privacy technology hide for bitcoin?
6
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1answer
105 views

Will P2TR make P2WSH obsolete?

Assuming users have upgraded their wallets to handle P2TR outputs and trust the validation rules of P2TR, would there be any advantage of using P2WSH over P2TR?
6
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1answer
121 views

What are the upcoming scaling and privacy improvements for Bitcoin past 2021?

Taproot is coming in 2021-Nov, but its been worked on for the last couple of years. What are upcoming improvements to Bitcoin that are just being talked about or being tested?
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2answers
817 views

Does the Taproot update benefit all bitcoin users? or is it for a selective amount of people

I came across a blog post where it mentions that the taproot update is promised to speed up BTC transactions, lower their fees, etc. but does this mean that literally, anyone sending or receiving BTC ...
5
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1answer
274 views

What are the sizes of single-sig and 2-of-3 multisig taproot inputs?

There was a Twitter discussion about the sizes of inputs and Taproot came up. What are the input sizes for Taproot inputs? Please cover both the key path spend (single-sig or default spend) and 2-of-...
5
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1answer
172 views

What is the difference between key aggregation and signature aggregation?

What is the difference between key aggregation (e.g. MuSig) and signature aggregation? Many people (including myself) have in the past used these terms interchangeably. Why is it important to be ...
5
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1answer
65 views

What is SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUTANYSCRIPT?

BIP 118 describes SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT, but also mentions SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUTANYSCRIPT. What is the difference, and why is the later sighash flag needed?
4
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2answers
1k views

Will “Taproot” replace Lightning Network?

Can somebody explain to me if Taproot will fix the issues that Lightning Network solves, without the Lightning Network? That is, near-zero fees, privacy and fast settlements? Will Taproot allow me to ...
4
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2answers
161 views

What are “leaf versions” in Taproot?

What are "leaf versions", when do you upgrade a version, how many versions are there and how do they differ from segwit versions?
4
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3answers
808 views

What are some interesting applications of Taproot “smart contracts”?

From a strictly technical perspective, MAST makes a lot of sense. However, understanding it in the context of Taproot/Tapscript does require prior knowledge in Merkle Trees and hash functions. What ...
4
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2answers
281 views

On chain cost of Segwit version 1 versus version 0

How do total blockchain cost for Segwit version 0 compare to version 1 which is being proposed? I'm specifically interested in a single user transactions – both paying to public key (or pk hash) and ...
4
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1answer
150 views

Does v1 Segwit includes v0?

My question is whether the version 1 of Segwit script will allow you to use version 0 scripts types inside of it. In other words, is version 1 superset of version 0? Please include reasoning behind ...
4
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1answer
76 views

How does Taproot improve Lightning Network functionality?

With the upcoming taproot upgrade in 2021-Nov, how does this improve Lightning Network functionality?
4
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1answer
251 views

Is the BCH version of Schnorr signatures compatible with taproot?

BCH is going to introduce support for Schnorr signatures on May 15th. One of the most anticipated features for Schnorr signatures on Bitcoin is the introduction of taproot constructions. Will it be ...
4
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1answer
246 views

I keep hearing about MAST, what is it and what does it do?

So, somebody asked me about MAST yesterday. Apparently, it's formalized in BIP114 – Merkelized Abstract Syntax Trees. I couldn't explain what it was and what advantages it'll bring us. What are ...
4
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1answer
303 views

Activation of SegWit v1

The segregated witness soft fork of August 2017 included a versioning field which would allow for future incrementation. Anthony Towns has recently posted an early draft of the proposal for the SegWit ...
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0answers
67 views

How are taproot scripts represented in general?

I'm pretty familiar with the opcode style of writing down scripts. I can understand the stack-based language nature of bitcoin script where you can write down different script spend paths via ifs like ...
3
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2answers
152 views

Why is no security lost by using 32-byte public keys in Schnorr signatures instead of 33?

There is currently a discussion on the mailing list about truncating the 33rd byte from public keys when used in bip-schnorr. Public keys are (x, y) coordinates and compressed public keys simply ...
3
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2answers
539 views

Could Taproot create larger security risks or even hinder future protocol adjustments re Quantum threats?

I am quoting here a user named "blk014" who responded to Pieter's Taproot tweets from 24JAN. I find this user's comments very interesting and would like to ask a developer expert how much of a ...
3
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1answer
209 views

Would a Schnorr PubKey be a different length than a Taproot PubKey like P2WPKH and P2WSH?

A P2WPKH PubKey is shorter than a P2WSH PubKey. Would this also be the case that a Taproot PubKey is larger than a Schnorr PubKey? If so, wouldn't people be incentivised to use the Schnorr PubKey and ...
3
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1answer
130 views

How do the fees for taproot transactions compare to P2WPKH?

How would the most basic taproot transactions (not involving scripts) compare to P2WPKH transactions in terms of vbytes or fees?
3
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1answer
278 views

I would like to dig into the open Taproot PR to understand it, test it and possibly even review it. Any advice or recommendations?

I would like to dig into the open Taproot PR (PR #19953) to understand it, test it and possibly even review it. Any advice or recommendations?
3
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1answer
68 views

Why Schnorr was added to secp256k1 library instead of a separate library?

Schnorr signatures are often compared as superior to the Elliptic Curve ones. Then why developers added Schnorr into libsecp256k1 library which is, as the name suggests, an Elliptic Curve library? ...
3
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1answer
590 views

How can I follow the progress of miner signaling for Taproot activation during the Speedy Trial deployment?

How can I follow the progress of miner signaling for Taproot activation during the Speedy Trial deployment? Can I use bitcoin-cli to track the signaling progress? This was asked by pox on Mastodon and ...
3
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1answer
654 views

What makes cross input signature aggregation complicated to implement?

What makes cross input signature aggregation complicated to implement? Other than for design space reasons why didn't it make it into BIP-Taproot? (Key aggregation within one input can be achieved ...
3
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2answers
51 views

Is there a multisignature scheme that don't need xpub backups?

A disadvantage of a HD multi-signature scheme compared to a Shamir's Shared Secret Scheme is the need to back up the xpub keys. There's no BIP39-like encoding for xpubs, they're long, and they're ...
3
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2answers
61 views

What is the control block in Taproot?

What is the definition of "control block" in the context of Taproot? It is referred to in standard.cpp in the Bitcoin Core repo and in BIP 341.
3
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1answer
96 views

What is the current Status of major proposed BTC upgrades like Taproot, MAST, Submarine Swaps?

I have read during the last year about some very interesting BIPs or initiatives. I am not asking for their explanations, just would be great if anyone would know about their simple status as of now, ...
3
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1answer
246 views

Does Taproot allow CoinJoin-style transactions without revealing all signers?

Taproot allows to hide a script behind a transaction and only release the relevant information when the output is being spent. Would this allow for a construction of a script with N participants + ...
3
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1answer
175 views

What are the risks of a lower-than-95% activation threshold for soft forks (particularly SegWit)?

95% seems exceptionally conservative, especially given the evidence of vetoing by a subset of Bitcoin miners. What risks does, say, 60% over a longer activation period hold vs 95% for SegWit?
3
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0answers
97 views

Taproot block version [duplicate]

In block 681543 Slush Pool had mined the proper taproot signalling (bit 2 in block version) block but the version wasn't the default 0x20000004 with a version base 0x20000000 but 0x3fff0004. Does it ...
2
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2answers
77 views

Why don't add salt to the tapscript in Taproot?

The corresponding Merkle proof needs to be given when unlocking UTXO using MAST, where the hash of an unused script will be included. For the observation, it seems possible to guess the unused script ...
2
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2answers
103 views

Given OP_VER was never used, is disabled and not considered useful can its meaning be stripped and it be made OP_SUCCESS?

Given OP_VER (0x62) was never used onchain, is disabled and is not considered useful can its meaning be stripped and it be made OP_SUCCESS for the purposes of introducing a new different opcode in ...
2
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2answers
70 views

How about force the use of unbalanced Merkle tree in Taproot?

I noticed this sentence in Taproot about the MAST build. The remaining scripts should be organized into the leaves of a binary tree. This can be a balanced tree if each of the conditions these ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Who will the first adopters of Taproot be (assuming it is activated at some stage)? What incentives are there to start using it straight away?

Adoption of SegWit by users and companies after it was activated was slow. Should we expect adoption of Taproot to be slow also (assuming it is activated at some stage)? Who will the first adopters of ...
2
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1answer
67 views

Will g'root be included in the Taproot soft-fork?

G'root, which I understands as generalised Taproot, was announced a year and a half ago. I'm wondering what the development is on it and if it is part of the taproot softfork.
2
votes
1answer
70 views

How can I spend from a P2TR address on Signet with the Bitcoin Core wallet in 22.0?

Apparently (credit 0xB10C) there are only 20 key-path and 5 script-path spends of P2TR outputs on the Signet blockchain today (July 7th 2021). How can I increase this number today with say the Bitcoin ...
2
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2answers
51 views

Retweaking other person's or my own taproot address

Suppose I get a taproot address=schnorr public key from an exchange that is not tweaked using mast merkle root and I wish to tweak that public key. This will yield a potentially different public key. ...
2
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1answer
54 views

P2TR: Is pub key hashed in address?

Are the new Taproot addresses (SegWit v1) also a hash of the (potentially tweaked) public key, or is the public key directly encoded into the address, without hashing it?
2
votes
1answer
187 views

How much will Taproot boost Bitcoin's transactions per second?

Currently, the bitcoin network does about 3-7 transactions per second. How much can taproot theoretically increase that? Assuming a current throughput of 5 transactions per second, we get only about ...
2
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1answer
40 views

Using key aggregation (multsig) in P2TR script path spends

I know that it is possible to create a 2-2 multsig using Taproot by combining both private keys into one public key and defining that as the key path spend. I also know that it is possible to use ...