Questions tagged [taproot]

Taproot is an upcoming Bitcoin softfork designed to improve scripting and multisignature capabilities.

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Why does Taproot require a new address format?

Dawid Ciężarkiewicz asked on Twitter: Hey #bitcoin ers. I'm trying to figure out why taproot needs a new address format, as I missed it. If you have a good link or something - please share. I thought ...
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1answer
79 views

How long has it taken for BIP-Taproot to go from draft specification to activation?

It seems BIP-Taproot has been discussed for years now. How long has it taken to go from draft specification to potential activation?
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1answer
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What makes cross input signature aggregation complicated to implement?

What makes cross input signature aggregation complicated to implement? Other than for design space reasons why didn't it make it into BIP-Taproot? (Key aggregation within one input can be achieved ...
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1answer
30 views

BLS signature verification?

Is it possible to perform BLS signature verification with upcoming Taproot/Tapscript proposal?
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1answer
52 views

Advanced math operations in TapScript?

Hence BIP 342 proposes to enable opcodes like OP_MOD, OP_DIV, OP_MUL is it possible to perform advanced math operations like EC point addition/multiplication in a script size of up to 10kB?
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1answer
116 views

Taproot - Eliminating Key Path

I want to struct a transaction output the key-path of which I want to be eliminated, so enforcing only the script path. In order to eliminate key-path, in my opinion, I should set "Internal ...
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1answer
71 views

Are P2SH transactions with disabled opcodes relayed/mined?

Many OPCODES like OP_AND, OP_CAT, OP_SUBSTR are disabled as described in https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Script. Although, with Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 Gavin Andresen proposed "any Script" in P2SH ...
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3answers
817 views

What are Merklized Alternative Script Trees?

I have seen the acronym MAST floating around. I saw that it stands for Merklized Alternative Script Trees, but what does that mean? In what context do they appear and what can they be used for?
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1answer
99 views

If I delay upgrading to the latest Bitcoin Core version post Taproot activation does my node ever verify early Taproot spends?

Let's assume the Taproot soft fork is activated in June 2021. I continue to run an old version of Bitcoin Core (not enforcing Taproot rules) in July 2021 and so my full node treats valid Taproot ...
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1answer
69 views

What is stopping a Taproot spend following old Taproot rules (initially treated as anyone-can-spend) pre-activation creating a re-org post activation?

This question is similar to this Signet question on Signet nodes enforcing different Taproot rules (old and new) pre mainnet activation. Instead it is regarding how a valid Taproot spend on mainnet ...
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1answer
36 views

How do I tweak the bip340_test_vectors to check that signature verification fails for other test vectors?

I now understand why some of the bip340_test_vectors fail signature verification. I would like to tweak these test vectors to check that signature verification fails for other test vectors. How do I ...
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1answer
124 views

I'm digging further into the open Taproot PR. Can you explain the bip340_test_vectors?

I'm digging further into the open Taproot PR. I found these bip340_test_vectors. They have secret keys, public keys, aux_rand (auxiliary randomness), message, signature and whether the signature ...
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1answer
66 views

Who will the first adopters of Taproot be (assuming it is activated at some stage)? What incentives are there to start using it straight away?

Adoption of SegWit by users and companies after it was activated was slow. Should we expect adoption of Taproot to be slow also (assuming it is activated at some stage)? Who will the first adopters of ...
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1answer
482 views

How do I construct a P2TR address if I just want to use the key path?

I want to create a P2TR (Pay to Taproot) address but I just want access to the key path spend, I have no use for the script path spend in this specific example. What should I do in regard to the ...
0
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1answer
56 views

How do I debug Taproot functional tests using pdb?

I am looking at the some of the Taproot functional tests such as feature_taproot.py to review the open Taproot PR. I would like to use pdb to debug these tests. Can you provide some guidance on how to ...
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1answer
279 views

I would like to dig into the open Taproot PR to understand it, test it and possibly even review it. Any advice or recommendations?

I would like to dig into the open Taproot PR (PR #19953) to understand it, test it and possibly even review it. Any advice or recommendations?
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1answer
114 views

Can we experiment on Signet with multiple proposed soft forks whilst maintaining the ability of full nodes to validate the Signet chain?

One of the goals of Signet is to test proposed soft forks before they are activated on mainnet. Not only does this mean proposed soft forks such as Taproot that at the time of writing (August 2020) ...
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1answer
71 views

Could CHECKSIGADD be used on new ECDSA multisignatures instead of CHECKMULTISIG?

The proposed Taproot soft fork (BIP 342) defines the new opcode OP_CHECKSIGADD to verify Schnorr multisignatures whilst OP_CHECKMULTISIG (and OP_CHECKMULTISIGVERIFY) are disabled for Taproot spends (...
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2answers
103 views

Given OP_VER was never used, is disabled and not considered useful can its meaning be stripped and it be made OP_SUCCESS?

Given OP_VER (0x62) was never used onchain, is disabled and is not considered useful can its meaning be stripped and it be made OP_SUCCESS for the purposes of introducing a new different opcode in ...
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2answers
161 views

What are “leaf versions” in Taproot?

What are "leaf versions", when do you upgrade a version, how many versions are there and how do they differ from segwit versions?
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1answer
251 views

In theory could we skip the proposed Taproot soft fork, activate Simplicity instead and use Simplicity to write the equivalent of Taproot scripts?

In theory could we skip the proposed Taproot soft fork, activate Simplicity instead and use Simplicity to write the equivalent of Taproot scripts? Or does Simplicity need more development and ...
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1answer
33 views

Is there already reached consensus on network upgrades like Taproot, Submarine Swaps?

I have read about some very interesting new protocol amendments. I am not asking for their explanations, but would be great if anyone explained their current status, if they are still considered to ...
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1answer
266 views

What are the different upgradeability features in the BIP-Taproot (BIP 341) proposal?

What are the different upgradability features in the BIP-Taproot (BIP 341) proposal? Why are there so many upgradability paths? Is there something an annex can do that a leaf version can't? This ...
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3answers
809 views

What are some interesting applications of Taproot “smart contracts”?

From a strictly technical perspective, MAST makes a lot of sense. However, understanding it in the context of Taproot/Tapscript does require prior knowledge in Merkle Trees and hash functions. What ...
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1answer
274 views

What are the sizes of single-sig and 2-of-3 multisig taproot inputs?

There was a Twitter discussion about the sizes of inputs and Taproot came up. What are the input sizes for Taproot inputs? Please cover both the key path spend (single-sig or default spend) and 2-of-...
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2answers
539 views

Could Taproot create larger security risks or even hinder future protocol adjustments re Quantum threats?

I am quoting here a user named "blk014" who responded to Pieter's Taproot tweets from 24JAN. I find this user's comments very interesting and would like to ask a developer expert how much of a ...
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1answer
68 views

Will g'root be included in the Taproot soft-fork?

G'root, which I understands as generalised Taproot, was announced a year and a half ago. I'm wondering what the development is on it and if it is part of the taproot softfork.
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Can Submarine Swaps be incorporated into a Taproot/Scriptless script?

I was looking for ideas on how to use Submarine Swaps with Taproot/Scriptless Scripts. But I couldn't find anything. I can imagine that it would trivially be possible to incorporate a Submarine Swaps ...
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1answer
612 views

Musig Signature Interactivity

2 Questions: Why is Musig signing always interactive? Let's say I have a Musig wallet where keys are stored in secure locations with no internet access. What are some methods to sign from these ...
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1answer
210 views

Would a Schnorr PubKey be a different length than a Taproot PubKey like P2WPKH and P2WSH?

A P2WPKH PubKey is shorter than a P2WSH PubKey. Would this also be the case that a Taproot PubKey is larger than a Schnorr PubKey? If so, wouldn't people be incentivised to use the Schnorr PubKey and ...
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1answer
246 views

Does Taproot allow CoinJoin-style transactions without revealing all signers?

Taproot allows to hide a script behind a transaction and only release the relevant information when the output is being spent. Would this allow for a construction of a script with N participants + ...
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2answers
152 views

Why is no security lost by using 32-byte public keys in Schnorr signatures instead of 33?

There is currently a discussion on the mailing list about truncating the 33rd byte from public keys when used in bip-schnorr. Public keys are (x, y) coordinates and compressed public keys simply ...
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2answers
281 views

On chain cost of Segwit version 1 versus version 0

How do total blockchain cost for Segwit version 0 compare to version 1 which is being proposed? I'm specifically interested in a single user transactions – both paying to public key (or pk hash) and ...
4
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1answer
150 views

Does v1 Segwit includes v0?

My question is whether the version 1 of Segwit script will allow you to use version 0 scripts types inside of it. In other words, is version 1 superset of version 0? Please include reasoning behind ...
4
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1answer
252 views

Is the BCH version of Schnorr signatures compatible with taproot?

BCH is going to introduce support for Schnorr signatures on May 15th. One of the most anticipated features for Schnorr signatures on Bitcoin is the introduction of taproot constructions. Will it be ...
3
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1answer
96 views

What is the current Status of major proposed BTC upgrades like Taproot, MAST, Submarine Swaps?

I have read during the last year about some very interesting BIPs or initiatives. I am not asking for their explanations, just would be great if anyone would know about their simple status as of now, ...
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1answer
303 views

Activation of SegWit v1

The segregated witness soft fork of August 2017 included a versioning field which would allow for future incrementation. Anthony Towns has recently posted an early draft of the proposal for the SegWit ...
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2answers
141 views

What kind of privacy does Taproot give bitcoin?

I understand that confidential transactions hide the amounts sent and received. But what does the new taproot privacy technology hide for bitcoin?
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1answer
127 views

Could Taproot or Graftroot enable the execution of complex scripts?

From my understanding, Taproot uses a Merkle Tree structure whose root represents the outcome of a script. That representation is in the form of a signature that may unlock the inputs associated with ...
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1answer
175 views

What are the risks of a lower-than-95% activation threshold for soft forks (particularly SegWit)?

95% seems exceptionally conservative, especially given the evidence of vetoing by a subset of Bitcoin miners. What risks does, say, 60% over a longer activation period hold vs 95% for SegWit?
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1answer
246 views

I keep hearing about MAST, what is it and what does it do?

So, somebody asked me about MAST yesterday. Apparently, it's formalized in BIP114 – Merkelized Abstract Syntax Trees. I couldn't explain what it was and what advantages it'll bring us. What are ...

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