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Questions tagged [terminology]

Definitions of technical terms, jargon, abbreviations, acronyms, and phrases that are essential to the Bitcoin community.

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Understanding Script's number encoding, CScriptNum

What is a simple explanation of CScriptNum, the number encoding used by arithmetic opcodes in Bitcoin Script? What would an illustrative pseudocode/python example look like? What should the encoding ...
Lee's user avatar
  • 833
1 vote
1 answer
124 views

What is meant by "non-standard"?

In contexts outside of "mempool policy", and broader than only transactions, what do the terms non-standard and standard mean (e.g. with reference to blocks, headers and well as transactions)...
Lee's user avatar
  • 833
4 votes
1 answer
297 views

What is Tapscript?

What is Tapscript? How is it different from script? Is it the same thing as "Leaf script"? How does it relate to Witness Script, miniscript and any other type of script used in Bitcoin ...
Lee's user avatar
  • 833
2 votes
1 answer
51 views

Where does the term "derivation path" originate

BIP-32 never mentions the term "derivation path" but a quick search (https://bitcoinsearch.xyz/?search=derivation+path) returns a bunch of results so one must assume "derivation path&...
Tobin's user avatar
  • 123
3 votes
1 answer
88 views

Is it even possible to spend a stash of 1-sat UTXOs?

In terms of UTXO management, I have the following extreme example to illustrate my question. Let's say I have 1 BTC with 100 million UTXOs of 1 sat each (or even 10 million UTXOs with 10 sats each). ...
Leo's user avatar
  • 103
5 votes
1 answer
57 views

What is a payment basepoint?

The BOLT #3 Commitment Transaction documentation talks about a payment basepoint, but I can't find it defined in the glossary or anywhere else. It also mentions various other basepoints like a ...
Zephyrus's user avatar
  • 782
3 votes
0 answers
47 views

I know `xpub`, but what are `ypub` and `zpub`? [duplicate]

I am familiar with the concept of extended pubkeys. However, I sometimes see mention of "ypub" and "zpub". Are they related to xpubs? If so, what is the difference? How are ypubs ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.7k
1 vote
1 answer
45 views

What is pchCommand?

BIP152 and BIP130 are using this term. What does it mean? Command name in message header?
Qwerty M3's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
241 views

What are outgoing and incoming connections and what is the difference between them?

Why do we have two types of connections, outgoing and incoming? What is the purpose of one and the other? Are outgoing connections the ones where we notify of new blocks/transactions, while incoming ...
Cosmos's user avatar
  • 199
0 votes
2 answers
86 views

What is TXID?Is it used to calculate merkleroot [duplicate]

I downloaded the block template where each transaction contains 'data', 'txid', 'hash'. I read in some articles that the Merkelroot is calculated using 'txid'. Is true? Why txid not hash, and what's ...
Jack Green's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
151 views

What is incremental relay feerate?

In an answer to my previous question, Murch used the term: incremental relay feerate. On first, I thought that's the same as minimum relay fee (minRelayTxFee) - minimum feerate (sat/VB) that ...
LeaBit's user avatar
  • 940
2 votes
1 answer
165 views

What does Pay to Contract (P2C) mean?

What does Pay to Contract (P2C) mean in Bitcoin? Is it just tweaking private/public key with the hash (represented as a number) of some message and then using classic P2PKH? For example, if we are ...
LeaBit's user avatar
  • 940
8 votes
2 answers
354 views

What is "(mempool) policy"?

In answers concerning validity or propagation of transactions as well as topics surrounding consensus, people frequently mention "policy" or sometimes "mempool policy". What do ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.7k
3 votes
2 answers
281 views

Where was the term "coinbase" first coined, who first used it?

The white paper doesn't mention the term "coinbase" (in reference to the reward transaction). I see the first version of the software main.cpp does: // First transaction must be coinbase,...
Lee's user avatar
  • 833
0 votes
1 answer
60 views

Bitcoin network: data-intensive or compute-intensive system?

Is it more accurate to consider the Bitcoin network a data-intensive system due to the massive amount of data that must be stored by miners, or instead, a compute-intensive system due to the PoW and ...
Questioner's user avatar
  • 1,151
5 votes
1 answer
99 views

How did Taproot get its name?

I've looked around best I could, but couldn't find a good answer to this. Is there any place it's documented publicly as to why the soft fork was called Taproot?
Hunter Beast's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
558 views

What is sigop (signature operation)?

I've seen the term sigop in many places frequently. I've tried to figure out what does it mean by searching, and found that it's abbreviation of signature operation. But it's still not clear to me the ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
221 views

Meaning of BTC "wallet address" and any difference with transaction address?

This is a newbie question but I couldn't find the answer after reading Reddit's r/Bitcoin Sticky FAQ and also searching r/Bitcoin on "wallet address". I opened a Coinbase account a while ...
tell's user avatar
  • 135
1 vote
3 answers
657 views

Are all wallets always considered nodes?

Likely a duh question, but are all network participants (or wallet holders here) always considered nodes? Am I right to say that the answer might depend on what the wallet is capable of doing in terms ...
kenta_desu's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
422 views

Are crypto tokens a subset of cryptocurrencies?

I'm having a little bit of trouble with these terminologies regarding some crypto assets. From what I understand, cryptocurrencies are the superset; i.e. both crypto coins and crypto tokens are ...
Sasikuttan's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
310 views

What's the difference between the anti klepto protocol and anti exfil?

What is the difference between the anti-klepto protocol (also here) and Anti-Exfil? Is it the same thing just with different names or are there differences? It seems they are both addressing the nonce ...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
55 views

Is it accurate to talk about a bitcoin inflation rate?

I have recently seen many news articles refer to Bitcoin's inflation. For example: "Bitcoin's inflation rate, calculated as the percentage of new coins issued divided by the current supply" ...
StatsScared's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
253 views

How throughput, latency, finality, waiting time are defined?

I am confused with the below terms. Could someone explain them in simple terms and confirm that my rationale below is correct? Waiting Time - Throughput - Finality - Latency - Confirmation Time I have ...
Nikolas's user avatar
  • 45
0 votes
2 answers
92 views

Whats it called when two blocks are solved at the same time and create their own chain?

I'm trying to find more information on this topic but I can't remember what this is called in order to look up more information on it. Is there an easy way to see the "trusted" amount of ...
Trevor Wood's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
598 views

What does TLV stand for?

I'm reading about the gossip protocol and wanted to know what a TLV is. I can't find what it means anywhere.
CriptoLuis's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the difference between blocksonly and block-relay-only in Bitcoin Core?

The terms blocksonly and block-relay-only that are used in Bitcoin Core are very similar. What is the difference between them?
Lightlike's user avatar
  • 636
2 votes
2 answers
108 views

What is a sane Miniscript? How does it differ to a valid Miniscript?

What is a sane Miniscript? How does it differ to a valid Miniscript? This was asked during a Bitcoin Core PR review club on Miniscript hosted by stickies-v on May 18th 2022.
Michael Folkson's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
62 views

Reasons not to rename scriptPubKey and scriptSig to something more intuitive?

I realize that this is how Satoshi named them and there was some reasoning behind these names, but even after years of using them, I find them weird and confusing, especially when e.g. explaining them ...
dpc.pw's user avatar
  • 301
1 vote
2 answers
239 views

How would one turn a Miniscript tree into a Taproot tree with Taproot'd Miniscript?

How would one turn a Miniscript "tree" into a Taproot tree with Taproot'd Miniscript? (To be clear unlike a Taproot tree a Miniscript tree likely would't be surfaced to the user. Breaking ...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
181 views

Is there a consensus as to what is meant by 'Nakamoto Consensus'?

I sometimes hear that bitcoin's key innovation was the Nakamoto Consensus, which solves the double-spend problem without the need for trusted third-party intermediaries. I take Nakamoto Consensus to ...
StatsScared's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
476 views

Is it Bitcoin or Bitcoins in plural? How did Satoshi Nakamoto address this choice in his emails? [duplicate]

I understand that traditionally it is said 2 bitcoin, not 2 bitcoins. But recently I have seen Wikipedia state that "bitcoins" is the correct plural form. We have words like water. It is ...
kintsukuroi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
113 views

How is coinswap different from submarine swap?

What is the difference between a coinswap and a submarine swap?
V3nom's user avatar
  • 23
0 votes
3 answers
156 views

What does bitcoin maximalist mean?

I've heard much about bitcoin maximalism. As I've googled it, a bitcoin maximalist is a person who believe that the only real cryptocurrency would really be needed in the future is the bitcoin. Is ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
35 views

What is the difference between semantic policy and concrete policy in a Miniscript context?

What is the difference between semantic policy and concrete policy in a Miniscript context? The difference between Policy and Miniscript is defined here.
Michael Folkson's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
481 views

What does "Senders" and "Recipients" mean in this context?

https://blockchair.com/bitcoin/address/3GauXQPcAgntyhxFdz9jiEf1VTiZYbNdh7 For each transaction, it mentions, for example: Senders: 80 Recipients: 1 What exactly does this mean? (Also, that's one ...
Dreyon B.'s user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
195 views

What is a security model, security assumption, and security guarantee?

I often hear bitcoiners talk about security models security assumptions security guarantees but I can't find definitions of these terms. What do these terms mean and how do they relate to each other?...
Kalle Rosenbaum's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
75 views

What is a Miniscript fragment? And what should I call the underscore letter?

An example Miniscript is: and_v(or_c(pk(B),or_c(pk(C),v:older(1000))),pk(A)) (Generated using this Miniscript site). What would a fragment be here? What should I call the underscore letter (_v)? And ...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
66 views

Who first started to name 'blockchain technology' as 'blockchain'

I read through the whitepaper of Satoshi Nakamoto. I could find the expression 'blocks are chained...' but he did not specifically use the word 'blockchain' itself. I want to know the origin of the ...
코스모스's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
103 views

Is there a distinction between an attack and an exploit?

I'm writing up lecture notes and attempting to put the language on the most logical footing. I'm hoping to distinguish attacks on the consensus itself from exploits of the protocol, as these seem to ...
MicahW's user avatar
  • 81
3 votes
2 answers
92 views

What verb best describes "causing another block to become stale"?

For example, suppose I'm selfish mining; you publish a block and then I immediately publish two, what did I do to your block? Similarly, if I'm executing a double-spend attack, my goal is to ?___? the ...
MicahW's user avatar
  • 81
8 votes
1 answer
638 views

What is signature grinding?

What is signature grinding and why does the answer to What is the size and weight of a wrapped segwit single-sig input? "highly recommend it"?
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.7k
3 votes
1 answer
90 views

Different term for 'fee rate'

Lot of users are confused between fee rate and fee. Sometimes even developers make mistakes or use 'fee' for everything to avoid confusion which can be considered misleading. Was there ever a ...
user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
801 views

Why is "regtest" called "regtest"?

Bitcoin "regtest" is for when you want to run a local version of Bitcoin where the state is only shared within a small community, whereas both "mainnet" and "testnet" are ...
Thorkil Værge's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
443 views

What is difference between Lightning Wallet and Lightning Node?

I am confused with the terminology of lightning node vs and wallet, as I see that each individual can run its own wallet like eclair so does that mean the person running a wallet is also running a ...
Raj Saraogi's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is it correct to say that Bitcoin has a virtual machine in the same way as Ethereum does?

I always thought that between Bitcoin and Ethereum only the latter had a virtual machine. The answer to this thread opened my eyes to the fact that Bitcoin actual has a virtual machine. However, I ...
StatsScared's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
250 views

What does the abbreviation "HTLC" stand for?

An HTLC is a contract making use of both a hashlock and a timelock. I noticed a discrepancy in what various sources state the abbreviation HTLC is short for. I've found: "Hashed Timelock ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.7k
1 vote
1 answer
171 views

How do difficulty, hashrate, and network hashrate fit together?

I understand that there are multiple terms for the idea of how hard it is to successfully mine BTC. The terms I have seen are "difficulty", "network hashrate" and "hashrate&...
noobie's user avatar
  • 13
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

What are the scriptPubKey, scriptSig, redeem script and witness for the various output types?

scriptPubKey, redeem script, witness script, witness program are defined in this StackExchange post. What are the scriptPubKey, scriptSig, redeem script and witness for the various output types (P2PKH,...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
444 views

How can I efficiently search the bitcoin-dev mailing list for discussion of a specific term?

How can I efficiently search the bitcoin-dev mailing list for discussion on a specific term e.g. deprecating BIP37 support? This question was asked by pinheadmz on IRC.
Michael Folkson's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
403 views

Does Bitcoin Core have/need an archive mode?

Similar to Ethereum's Archive Node: Stores everything kept in the full node and builds an archive of historical states. Needed if you want to query something like an account balance at block #4,000,...
yerzhan7's user avatar
  • 145

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