Questions tagged [utxo]

Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs) are created by transactions and allow the owner of an associated address to spend a specific amount.

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Do you sign only the previous output of transaction?

I need to confirm that I understand how transactions work in the Bitcoin network. Ok, so: Alice is a network node. Alice wants to send bitcoins to someone in the network. Alice is creating a ...
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How do Bitcoin balances work when an address is controlled by multiple parties together?

user1, pubkey1, 1.1 BTC user2, pubkey2, 1.2 BTC user3, pubkey3, 1.3 BTC user4, pubkey4, 1.4 BTC user4 sends 0.4 BTC to a 2-of-3 multi-sig account controlled by user1, user2 and user3 using P2SH. The ...
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Why is there “Change” in Bitcoins?

I have read about a change address and wondered why there even is the concept of change? Let's say I received 1 BTC from some person A and I want to send 0.4 BTC to another person B, afterwards. From ...
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What happens if 2 transaction spend to the same output? [duplicate]

I'm looking though the blockchain, and I've found 2 transactions in different blocks, which have the same hash: block 91812: "result": { "hash": "...
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Can we determine which one of the referenced outputs corresponds to a cashback transaction in BTC transaction scripts?

let me quickly elaborate the question. The structure of a BTC transaction script looks somewhat like the following example "...
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Is sharing a signed input safe?

Is it possible to decode the private key from a signed input? For example: From this signed input hex... ...
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what is referred as coin in bitcoin network?

I gathered information about bitcoin from various resources. All those resources said that when a transaction is done, the transaction get added to a block. So when Alice send 2 btc to Bob, network ...
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1answer
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“scriptSig” for P2SH-P2WPKH

I'm not sure I understand the fields of my input. I have a P2SH address (Testnet). This is the input of my transaction: "vin": [ { "txid": "...
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1answer
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What is the link between address and use of the UTXO?

I state that I'm still a beginner. I need some clarification. I am using the Testnet. This is the information regarding the address I used to receive funds from a Faucet bitcoin-cli validateaddress ...
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1answer
32 views

How to interpret the Descriptor field?

These are my UTXO in Tesnet environment: { "txid": "93ae7787fe8203e9f13534205ca0310baf8bf5e2b55b2faa1f8b09134f475208", "vout": 1, "address": "2N4VywDy3DnkCmCM8yvfMSFHiEt2ePxzLXu", "...
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1answer
437 views

Why is there no such thing as a redirected, forged, or fake transaction?

In the past, we had numerous questions about "fake" or "forged" transactions. Such transactions could supposedly be created even without holding any bitcoins, yet would end up in the mempool or even ...
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1answer
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what is meant by DEFAULT_ANCESTOR_LIMIT in child pay for parent?

Why is 25 the max parents a child can rescue in a child pay for parent? I don't think I understand what DEFAULT_ANCESTOR_LIMIT = 25 means. Does that also mean that the child transaction has 25 ...
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0answers
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What would a bitcoin quantum resistant address look like? [duplicate]

In an hypothetical future where a quantum computer is able to break the cryptography protecting the bitcoin private key, one of the solution would be to move our coins to quantum safe resistant ...
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P2SH-P2WPKH stack

I'm studying P2SH-P2WPKH and when I create the signed transaction I can see this stack (using btcdeb) script | ...
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1answer
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How are UTXOs handled in Ledger Live?

Take this Bitcoin transaction: https://www.blockchain.com/en/btc/tx/bad181b4bf50342e5226982ac5031d8b9ce670053d3b5c7502b0ff349a5f2838 In my Ledger Live, I can see that 0.3881168 BTC left the wallet: ...
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1answer
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How to query all utxos of an address from a full node?

I am new in the blockchain field, and I am trying to build my own block explorer from scratch to really learn about Bitcoin. I am currently running a full node in a raspberry pi, and I have already ...
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1answer
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Bitcoin UTXO anatomy

I've been using a command line tool to fetch spendables from a Bitcoin address. Given an address the following command (source) ouptuts UTXOs the address can spend. tx -i ...
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41 views

Optimally determine which transaction spent a transaction output

As it has been discussed before, it is very inneficient to find which transaction has spent a transaction output using bitcoin core alone. I found a way of doing it with an electrumx server running on ...
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2answers
101 views

Bitcoin UTXO discrepancy in calculation

I'm trying to understand the following two sites that display UTXO information. If I can figure out the method, that would be a bonus for this question but if I can't can someone explain why the two ...
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3answers
54 views

How are UTXO forwarded to other addresses?

this is a pretty general, conceptual question. I feel I do not yet completely understand the blockchain transaction dynamics. Let's say, we have A, B and C trading on the Blockchain: A has ...
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Is there a way to know at any point in time T how many BTC exist that were bought at time t<T?

What I would like to find out is whether for a specific time in the past, we can know the number of BTC that exist today and were bought at this time. The discrete time can be the time of block ...
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1answer
99 views

Why Full Node stores whole blockchain instead of only the UTXO set?

So I have started learning bitcoin recently (from Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency course @ Coursera). And I just learnt that there are "Full-Validating Note" out there that are: Permanently connected ...
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1answer
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How to quickly get the balance of any bitcoin address? (with no third-party API)

As some people have mentioned (eg. here), the only way to get the balance of an address in bitcoin core was to import it as a watch-only address and rescan the blockchain. Starting with bitcoin core ...
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3answers
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How bitcoin application in production retrive UTXO's

AFIK, UTXO of an address cannot be retrieved using bitcoin-core, without importing the address in the wallet. How are application in production able to get UTXO ? Does all the application use ...
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if bitcoin miner(s) changed the UTXO set would the bitcoin nodes reject the blocks?

if so, would this cause a Fork? or what would happen?
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1answer
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Can the network confirm a utxo is from a wallet on a verified list [closed]

Given a business requirement of a verified list of wallets that the network has agreed on. can the network confirm a new type of utxo is from a wallet on this list and reject the new type of utxo if ...
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1answer
79 views

How long does it take to find a UTXO in UTXOs set?

to validate a TX, the miner or full node should first find the UTXO. How long does it take to find a specific UTXO in a list of UTXOs set? Right now, there are around 100 million of UTXOs. Then, how ...
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How can I consume my whole bitcoin balance in a single transction? Is it possible to use multiples UTXOs in a single transaction?

I want to make use of a single bitcoin address for payment. I'm using bitcoinjs library's transction builder for creating my own transaction. Can anyone help with a proper code to use multiple UTXO's ...
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2answers
309 views

Other database besides UTXO?

In this post it is explained that the UTXO are removed after they are spent. This makes sense because they are not "unspent" anymore. But don't all UTXOs have a reference/connection to their ...
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Clarification on the UTXO expense [duplicate]

I want to clarify my doubt on the UTXO expense, I have one transaction, an example this and the use case for creating this transaction is bc1qz6qtgzkjnvzrf02tl8sczg7q8r0kkws0d5ly5s -> Send 0.00712451 ...
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1answer
99 views

Fundamentals: Addresses don't hold coins, wallets do?

In the beginning it was my understanding that: Every address has a private key Every address has a balance Every address may send and receive coins. This is simple. But now I am using more proper ...
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3answers
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How is the monetary part of bitcoin stored?

How is the monetary aspect of a bitcoin stored? I understand that the blockchain is a set of records documenting transactions. I've also seen that blockchains in general can store arbitrary ...
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How Bitcoin dose find and verify UTXO ? is this efficient?

If Bitcoin sees all blocks, it will be very slow based on chain length and block size but, it can certainly verify incoming transactions. I know that blockchain is never modified any previous block. ...
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Some weird BTC transaction just happened to my wallet, sub wallet doesn't send back the BTC to my wallet [duplicate]

So my wallet address is 3BA1kdxSyFLADWJHDeaFb2xap4QASVvXto First I sent 0.00010000BTC to 1FjpQCZvqQxpGjvdU8AcxVyxXgJqY17Uzw (https://btc.com/...
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How many TXO have been created in total?

I've seen some statistical data about the Bitcoin UTXO number (around 61M currently). I was wondering how many TXOs (including spent and unspent) there were in the complete history of Bitcoin?
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1answer
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How to prevent double spending Bitcoins?

If I create a transaction, my node will check my UTXO's and if i have enough BTC to do this transaction it will be mined. So let's say I want to spend 12 BTC to Anna. The System will check if i ...
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1answer
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Why is the 'Estimated BTC Transacted' referring to just one of the multiple outputs?

I recently started learning about bitcoins and came by this transaction. Here there are multiple outputs so if we consider one of them to be the change received by the sender then why is the '...
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1answer
142 views

Fetch UTXO Bitcoin to address created by rpc importprivkey without rescan like other api

For few reasons, I must use rpc node to handle wallet at this time. In the near future, I will change the flow to use library to create addreses, store privatekey at database and create raw ...
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1answer
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Is UTXO synonymous with leftover money in an address?

Is UTXO synonymous with leftover money in an address and the only reason UTXO is even a concept is due to security concerns of not changing an address after every transaction? Hence, your "unspent ...
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1answer
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spend a specifc UTXO

Is there any methods to pick a particular UTXO and send it to a particular address in bitcoin regtest mode using bitcoin-cli other than createrawtransaction and sendtoaddress
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What are the downsides of integrating accumulators like utreexo to bitcoind?

Inspired by the discussion in this question I wonder what would be the downsides of adding accumulators like utreexo (paper at: https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/611.pdf) to bitcoind? On the positive ...
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363 views

Bitcoin address generation and UTXO scanning

I'm developing bitcoin payment processing application. I've two question to ask: In each bip32 address, How much UTXO each address should have to consider generating new address to avoid address re-...
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1answer
111 views

Privacy: How should I handle UTXO's?

We know that, for security and anonymity, we shouldn't reuse addresses. Also, there is the idea of change avoidance to protect ourselves from any number of change detection heuristics. But I find ...
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1answer
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OP_EQUAL not working properly

I went to https://siminchen.github.io/bitcoinIDE/build/editor.html to try some bitcoin scripting and I wrote this script: <1PUzZ61FSVTn12CafJC85Vy1ts3BoFcXdU> OP_HASH160 <...
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What was the longest held UTXO ever spent?

What output had the longest period between when it was created and eventually spent?
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1answer
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Is a bitcoin UTXO divisible?

In this video Andreas Antonopolous says an output is indivisible and therefore if a transaction smaller than the output is done, the rest is used as change and returned to your different address of ...
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3answers
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What is the order in which UTXOs are sorted in a block?

Let's say, I am trying to do a double spend by creating two transactions almost immediately, is it possible that both the transactions are added in one block ? If yes, then which transaction is valid ...
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1answer
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Is it cryptographically possible to have aggregate signature schemes that can improve privacy in UTXO consolidation?

My understanding of Schnorr signatures, Taproot and Graftroot and how they improve privacy in smart contracts / multi-sig is by allowing users to aggregate signatures so the individual signatures and ...
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1answer
313 views

How bitcoin nodes update UTXO set when their latests blocks are replaced?

Let's say bitcoin node has 100 blocks. Then he recieve another two blocks. Now it have 102 blocks. But now he recieve block 103. And this block is from another chain and our node have to remove blocks ...
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1answer
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How do blockchains in each nodes maintain consistency?

What I understand as (Please correct me if any statement is wrong) Every full node tries to generate a new block, in which different amount of transactions are included and what to be included will ...

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