Questions tagged [utxo-set]

The global set of unspent transaction outputs at the chaintip.

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What do these memory configurations in debug.log of BitCoin Core represent?

In the debug.log file of BitCoin Core, the cache configuration is described as follows. Cache configuration: Using 2.0 MiB for block index database Using 8.0 MiB for chain state database Using ...
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Various caches are defined in the Bitcoin source code. What do these caches refer to?

The source code is as follows: //! -dbcache default (MiB) static const int64_t nDefaultDbCache = 450; //! -dbbatchsize default (bytes) static const int64_t nDefaultDbBatchSize = 16 << 20; //...
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Ledger Nano S - Do you use the same key to send & receive Bitcoin?

I have a just bought a Ledger Nano S and have put my Bitcoin onto it using one of the keys it generated. It actually generated 19 of them so I used the first one. My question is, if I want to load ...
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How does a miner verify a transaction which is spending an output of another transaction in the same block?

It is mentioned in this post that: If all validation of all transactions in a block succeeds, the consumed inputs are removed from the database, and all outputs of those transactions added as fresh ...
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What were some discussed and current potential issues with pre-forked Bitcoin coins from August 2017 that have never moved since then?

I was speaking to a friend that mentioned that there were issues with pre-forked Bitcoin coins from Aug 2017 that never moved. He wouldn't tell me exactly what the potential issue was, but what were ...
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Where in ~/.bitcoin are mempool and UTXO pools written?

Where in ~/.bitcoin are the two pools in question stored when their size grows above the size set by dbcache and maxmempool in bitcoin.conf. Is UTXO pool written to such location at Bitcoin Core's ...
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Is this the ledger?

Lots of articles about bitcoin say that anyone can see all the transactions that have ever taken place, and they call that "the ledger." But none of those articles give a link for where to ...
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When the UTXO in the cache is full, what strategy is used to replace one UTXO with another in the cache?

The UTXO set is stored on the disk, but some UTXOs are also stored in the cache. When validating a transaction, you need to query the UTXO pointed to by the input of the transaction. First, you go to ...
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Refer to UTXO by output index or output full address in blockchain?

I'm writing my own simple crypto and wondering whether input in a transaction should refer to unspend output only by it's TXID and vout (index in outputs vector in a transaction) OR by it's TXID and ...
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How to count the provably unspendable UTXO in the blockchain?

As far as I understand, one can count the UTXOs by iterating through the blockchain starting at block height 0 and counting the number of outputs and subtracting the number of inputs for each block ...
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UTXO snapshots and history pruning

Is there a research, BIP proposal or simple discussion about possible improvement on the size required to run a full node and a way to shrink/prune the history of bitcoin and have fast sync? Let me ...
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Can an unsynchronized node create a valid transaction?

I'm trying to understand how bitcoin transactions work. From what I understand, in the Bitcoin network nodes hold different versions of the Blockchain and after some time the different chains start ...
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Differences between “unique address used” and “No of UTXO tx”

Let select a date, 1st May 2020. https://www.blockchain.com/charts/n-unique-addresses shows 680.654 K of unique addresses used https://www.blockchain.com/charts/n-transactions shows there are 340....
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How to interpret the Descriptor field?

These are my UTXO in Tesnet environment: { "txid": "93ae7787fe8203e9f13534205ca0310baf8bf5e2b55b2faa1f8b09134f475208", "vout": 1, "address": "2N4VywDy3DnkCmCM8yvfMSFHiEt2ePxzLXu", "...
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How can the compressed UTXO set be stored in just 4GB?

According to S. Delgado-Segura, C. Pérez-Sola, G. Navarro-Arribas, J. Herrera-Joancomartí, "Analysis of the Bitcoin UTXO set", Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pp. 78-91, 2019, the ...
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How do nodes validate that a UTXO in a new transaction is unspent?

Does it check every block in between where the UTXO first appeared and the current time to make sure it didn't get spent then? Or is there some other caching or other method to make the check faster?
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Why Full Node stores whole blockchain instead of only the UTXO set?

So I have started learning bitcoin recently (from Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency course @ Coursera). And I just learnt that there are "Full-Validating Note" out there that are: Permanently connected ...
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How to quickly get the balance of any bitcoin address? (with no third-party API)

As some people have mentioned (eg. here), the only way to get the balance of an address in bitcoin core was to import it as a watch-only address and rescan the blockchain. Starting with bitcoin core ...
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How bitcoin application in production retrive UTXO's

AFIK, UTXO of an address cannot be retrieved using bitcoin-core, without importing the address in the wallet. How are application in production able to get UTXO ? Does all the application use ...
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How long does it take to find a UTXO in UTXOs set?

to validate a TX, the miner or full node should first find the UTXO. How long does it take to find a specific UTXO in a list of UTXOs set? Right now, there are around 100 million of UTXOs. Then, how ...
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Other database besides UTXO?

In this post it is explained that the UTXO are removed after they are spent. This makes sense because they are not "unspent" anymore. But don't all UTXOs have a reference/connection to their ...
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Is there a flag or specific message in a bitcoin pcap to show us our bitcoin transaction is confirmed or not?

Assume that I send a specific value from a source wallet to a destination wallet and simultaneously capture the input and output traffic with Wireshark. I can extract output address and it's value ...
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381 views

How bitcoin nodes update UTXO set when their latests blocks are replaced?

Let's say bitcoin node has 100 blocks. Then he recieve another two blocks. Now it have 102 blocks. But now he recieve block 103. And this block is from another chain and our node have to remove blocks ...
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How do blockchains in each nodes maintain consistency?

What I understand as (Please correct me if any statement is wrong) Every full node tries to generate a new block, in which different amount of transactions are included and what to be included will ...
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What’s the purpose of checking for input overflow?

Everyone knows this famous fix for block 74638 which still exists in other files. But there’s something I can’t understand, why check for inputs overflow since it’s not possible to have enough utxo ...
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What in detail makes the Coinbase in the Genesis Block unspendable? [duplicate]

I was aware that the Genesis block's reward was unspendable, and that there was no UTXO for it in the UTXO Set. I thought that this was due to the Genesis block being hardcoded and the actual ...
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How miner makes sure that a transaction he picked up from mempool is actually valid? [duplicate]

I have read and searched enough about the roles and responsibilities of miners here; For example: Does the miner first validate transaction before doing POW or he does not validate at all ? Does a ...
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Does the chainstate leveldb only contain “addresses” for P2PKH and P2SH?

I'm writing a small script that will dump the utxo database to a text file. As far as I'm aware, these are the most common script patterns indicated by the type field inside each value: e.g. value: ...
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How does an SPV client forms a transaction which is then Broadcasted?

As per my understanding, an SPV client only keeps a track of the block headers in its own database. So when a user tries to send bitcoins using that particular SPV client, how is the transaction ...
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630 views

Do UTXO's ever get consolidated to avoid complexitity?

In 'Mastering Bitcoin' (pg 130) it is explained that a transaction will require higher fees if it is complex. For example, if I collect bitcoin from 100 people to buy a single tent, then when those ...
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State of transaction and UTXO

What I have learned is that state is an abstract thing and is maintained by the node locally and the state of the current blockchain can be reached by starting all the way from the genesis block and ...
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Transaction vaildation

I have understood that miners validate the transactions by checking for double spends and that the transaction was not already confirmed, what I don't understand is how the miners are able to do this ...
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What prevents a malicious user creating a new transaction using signatures of an old mined transaction if the inputs have the exact same balance?

I am NOT talking about double spending. I am talking about this type of scenario: Let's say address A has 1 BTC balance initially. A valid transaction is created and for simplicity's sake, assume ...
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Are there different ledgers in the bitcoin network?

Is it correct to say that in the bitcoin network, there are different versions of ledgers (although the longest chain is the correct one)?
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1answer
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Are bitcoins “stored” on phones? Or we only see data on the blockchain?

I'm confused. BTC or other crypto currencies are not stored on phones/computers right? On Wallets we ONLY see the amount of BTC or currency that belongs to us, but there is nothing being "stored” ...
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The Bitcoin.it wiki says addresses do not carry balances…but all info suggests otherwise

The Bitcoin wiki states, "Addresses are not wallets nor accounts, and do not carry balances." Yet, there's a zillion articles online about Bitcoin address balances, the Bitcoin blockchain explorers ...
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Has UTXO selection methods changed since activation of Segwit?

Before Segwit, transactions were penalized higher fees for having more inputs than outputs due to the input size being larger despite those transactions actually decreasing the global UTXO set. Segwit ...
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361 views

When exactly an entry is removed or added to the UTXO's set in the Bitcoin core?

I do have this implementation question and wanted to know how it's implemented specifically in the Bitcoin core. 1. When exactly an entry is added to the set of unspent transactions outputs? Is it ...
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What are the mechanics of verifying that an output transaction is not spent?

I am trying to understand the mechanics of how a bitcoin transaction works. When the output gets consumed by a later transaction, who and how prevents this output from being consumed a second time? Do ...
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250 views

get utxo at a certain chain height

I have the reference client running with a complete transaction index. Is it possible to get all UTXO for a certain height of the chain either via bitcoin-cli or some other tool?
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700 views

Difference between Bitcoin blockchain and Ripple ledger?

The Bitcoin blockchain stores history of transactions. Blockchain blocks are interconnected via pointer to previous hash. Meanwhile, the Ripple ledger instead of transactions stores account info such ...
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Is the asymptotic performance of bitcoin O(n) relative to the block chain length?

If I want the latest information (ie. account balance) of account A do I have to traverse the entire block chain to get that info or is the relevant information store in the latest block or some other ...
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How does the new database design used by Bitcrust work?

I've recently learned about a new Bitcoin node implementation in Rust called Bitcrust. They state that they have found a novel way of storing the Bitcoin blockchain as a "Spend tree" instead of ...
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Why is the blockchain called Distributed Public “Ledger” and not “Journal”?

Bitcoin (or more generally, blockchain) is a Distributed Public Ledger and as we know: The Journal is a book where all the transactions are recorded immediately when they take place which is then ...
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272 views

Wouldn't the blockchain size become a bottleneck if all payments happened on Bitcoin?

I am learning about Bitcoin. I understand that bitcoins are stored on a ledger, and the ledger itself is widely distributed and available to all parties. I also understand that the ledger stores all ...