Questions tagged [utxo]

Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs) are created by transactions and allow the owner of an associated address to spend a specific amount.

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Why is there sometimes no output that sends funds back to the sender's address?

'A' has one bitcoin. 'A' tries to send a 0.5 bit coin to 'B'. Two utxo are created. First, "utxo" sends "B" 0.5 bitcoin. Second, "utxo" where "A" remits remaining bitcoins to "A" except for 0.5 ...
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Signing a blank input?

Is it possible to include a blank input in a transaction? For example, a blank input could be used to guarantee a particular output was included in a transaction, using SIGHASH_SINGLE | ANYONECANPAY ...
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Is SIGHASH_NONE encompassing of other signature types?

Say I am building a transaction in private: Input 1 is signed with SIGHASH_SINGLE ( | SIGHASH_ANYONECANPAY) Input 2 is signed with SIGHASH_NONE | SIGHASH_ANYONECANPAY SIGHASH_NONE implies that ...
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Is there any tool to index ALL bitcoind UTXO?

I've got a full bitcoind node with txindex=1. listunspent command is useful only if node is in possession of a private key for address. So, if I want to check UTXO for random address, it will not ...
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138 views

Transactions with multiple input UTXOs and multiple output UTXOs

Suppose a transaction t has 5 input UTXOs each worth 1 BTC, each unlocked by a different sending address Ai. The outputs of that transaction are 10 UTXOs of 0.5BTC each, each locked by a different ...
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1answer
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Are all UTXOs locked by an address spent in a transaction?

Imagine I have 2 UTXOs locked by my address, each of which allows me to spend 5 bitcoins. If I subsequently want to send just 2 bitcoins to someone else, will both UTXOs be used as inputs in the ...
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Uniquely identifying a UTXO

I see two ways: Txid + index Txid + script hash Pros of the txid + index: Simple and short Cons of txid + index: It relies on array iteration being deterministic and all third party ...
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If I was developing a Bitcoin wallet, should I support both legacy and compatibility addresses?

To receive funds, I was thinking of giving a user the option of displaying two QR codes: Legacy - p2phk e.g. 1AKDDsfTh8uY4X3ppy1m7jw1fVMBSMkzjP Compatibility - p2sh(p2wpkh) e.g. ...
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Swift implementation of bitcoin transaction creation

Is there a well known and widely used Swift implementation for creating raw Bitcoin transactions and getting their hash (SegWit and Non-SegWit) of signing? If not, is there a reference document that ...
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1answer
70 views

Spending UTXO from same block

Block 546 is the first time a (actually two) transaction spends the UTXO of a transaction from the same block. Is the order important? (The transaction that generates the UTXO has to appear before in ...
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4answers
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Why do outputs need to be spent entirely?

I understand what change is and how it works (and it's analogous to physical money change), but what I don't understand is why this is needed in the first place. Given that this is all computer based,...
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Use UTXOs before transaction is signed/broadcasted

Suppose I have an address with a single UTXO. I want to create 100 transactions and sign/broadcast them all at once. Could I do the following: Create a transaction by hand (where change funds are ...
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Question about UTXO and indivisibility

I'm reading about the concept of UTXO. Everywhere I read, it says that a UTXO in an account is indivisible. One analogy said: "It's as if you wanted to make a $5 purchase with a $10 bill. You wouldn't ...
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Are there any other balance management systems other than UTXOs and Account Based used by blockchains today? [closed]

To know how much balance a user has on the bitcoin blockchain you just need to look at their UTXOs. To do the same in Ethereum you just look at their accounts. Are there any other systems used by ...
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The risk of sending money to a xpub generated address

Suppose the owner of xpub share the xpub to others, and someone send some money to a xpub generated address. If the owner of xprv does not know the path used to generate that new address, is that ...
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1answer
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How does an SPV client forms a transaction which is then Broadcasted?

As per my understanding, an SPV client only keeps a track of the block headers in its own database. So when a user tries to send bitcoins using that particular SPV client, how is the transaction ...
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Reference an UTXO of a transaction that has not been yet mined

How to reference an UTXO that has not been yet mined? I want to prepare a transaction and, before spreading it, use its UTXO as input for another relative timelocked transaction. Then, spread the ...
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1answer
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Is the bit encoding format for the graphic in BIP 68 implicitly little-endian?

CLTV (OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY - absolute locktime) and CSV (OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY - relative locktime) utilize BIP 68. Is the locktime for those two operations implicitly encoded in little-endian ...
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2answers
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Do UTXO's ever get consolidated to avoid complexitity?

In 'Mastering Bitcoin' (pg 130) it is explained that a transaction will require higher fees if it is complex. For example, if I collect bitcoin from 100 people to buy a single tent, then when those ...
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1answer
254 views

How can I get UTXO for a specific address?

Are there API's I can use to get this information?
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3answers
1k views

Litecoin litecore-lib receive UTXO and current balance

I have coded NodeJS script for bitcoin for send all balance from by address to some other one. Now I want to do this for the litecoin. For bitcoin I have used bitcore-lib and bitcore-explorers libs to ...
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0answers
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Is there a UTXO for IOTA? [closed]

How does the cryptocurrency IOTA keep record of the spent coins? Is there something similar to the UTXO where the unspent coins were recorded? And it somebody wants to spend a coin, do you have to ...
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How to cheaply melt many micro UTXOs?

I know this was probably brought up before but I cannot find any good resources on some potential, at least theoretical way of achieving this. So basically I have a lot of UTXOs whose value is ...
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0answers
49 views

What would UTXO consolidation look like in the public ledger with Schnorr signatures?

I am excited about the privacy and optimisations involved with moving from ECDSA to Schnorr signatures. One of the privacy improvements, as I understand it, is that you can aggregate signatures so ...
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1answer
456 views

What are the standard formats of transaction outputs?

A transaction output can have the type Pay to public key hash, P2PKH, where the ScriptPubKey field has the format: 76 a9 14 <20-byte hash of pubkey> 88 ac Pay to script hash, P2SH, used for e.g. ...
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UTXO transaction consolidation?

As a relatively new user, I have only generated a handful of public addresses. Usually, to move to a newly discovered and preferred wallet. I’ve only recently learned that a single seed phrase can ...
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2answers
170 views

If I reuse the same address can a previously used transaction be reused?

I was wondering, if I used an address adr0 to spend some coins in a transaction tx0 that give the coins to a different address adr1, and eventually, after some time, I receive some (completely ...
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4answers
2k views

Why does Bitcoin store all transaction inputs and outputs, instead of just an “account/balance” ledger?

From what I can tell, the Ethereum blockchain just stores accounts and balances - why did the original Bitcoin developers choose the method of storing all transactions for validation instead of just ...
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1answer
104 views

I seem to have too many unspent outputs for my given balance. What am I missing?

I have an address on the testnet. I started out with 1.3 btc. I then sent 0.5 btc to another address. My balance is now 0.8. OK, that makes sense. I expect now to have one UTXO which was the 0.8 in ...
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1answer
579 views

How to work out the balance for an HD Wallet extended private key?

I am working in C# with NBitcoin. I have created an extended master private key, and I can create the hierarchy of derived keys. In TestNet, I have requested some coin from a faucet, and the ...
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1answer
432 views

State of transaction and UTXO

What I have learned is that state is an abstract thing and is maintained by the node locally and the state of the current blockchain can be reached by starting all the way from the genesis block and ...
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Zcash T-address address wise UTXO transaction list both testnet and mainnet API [closed]

I need API for address wise UTXO transaction list for Zcash t-address for both testnet and mainnet.
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2answers
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How to Get UTXO using bitcore-lib?

I am using this library to make a wallet service that runs on a web browser. I use the library and browserify it so its compatible with the rest of my jquery. Now this tells me how to make and sign a ...
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1answer
219 views

get utxo at a certain chain height

I have the reference client running with a complete transaction index. Is it possible to get all UTXO for a certain height of the chain either via bitcoin-cli or some other tool?
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1answer
67 views

What does a bitcoin transaction contain?

I'm learning about basic transactions and know that a transaction should contain: i) Signature of the sender using some operator: sign(private key,message) ii) Receivers Public key (wallet address) ...
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1answer
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How many change outputs are there in a Bitcoin transaction

I have been reading the following article: https://coinmetrics.io/difficulty-estimating-chain-transaction-volume/ It mainly discusses how unreliable transaction volume on a UTXO blockchain such as ...
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1answer
364 views

How can I get address wise UTXO balance for Zcash t-address

I tried to create user specific account wise zcash t-address, got the following error zcash-cli getnewaddress "testaccount" error code: -11 error message: Accounts are unsupported Is it possible to ...
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3answers
1k views

How does the wallet identify which UTXOs belong to a public address while creating a new transaction?

I am a beginner here. A Transaction output has a field for amount and a locking script but no direct field for public address for which the output is meant. When a new transaction is being created, ...
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1answer
292 views

Why does the order in which the transactions occur matter when we reconstruct ownership information?

I was wondering why the order in which the transactions occur matters when we reconstruct ownership information. Can't we just aggregate all the input and output for each account to calculate how much ...
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1answer
224 views

bitcoin chainstate database parsing in python giving wrong value

I am trying to decode chainstate db for a specific out index for a transaction in python just for learning. Transaction ID: 4d4a4c6ca4f3c91e69563199943336d3279fad71c9e8d9c1708ef9dc6ac16000 out index = ...
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1answer
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utxo vs account-model [duplicate]

There are two possible models, the UTXO model and the account model. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Bitcoin chose the UTXO model. XRP and Ethereum for example use an account model. What are ...
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1answer
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Conflicting transaction info on Blockchain.info and Jaxx compared to other sources

I sent a batched transaction with 3 inputs pointing to the same output address. The receiver claims they only received 0.00042 BTC when they should have received a total of 0.00128615 BTC. She is ...
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190 views

Why do we refer to previous transactions in each transaction?

Isn't it enough to just have the Input Address, Output Address, Amount and Signature for each transaction?
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4answers
2k views

Why do some transactions have more than one input?

I know a normal transaction has 1 input and 2 outputs (if there is change that is the second output). But what about this scenario? Lets say I'm withdrawing bitcoin from my gemini account and want ...
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1answer
129 views

get the location of UTXO data

I need to find the location of the code which deals with UTXO, and then implement FIFO on UTXO storage. I aint able to find the location of UTXO code and also where it is stored.
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1answer
814 views

what happens to UTXOs when a transaction output script is satisfied?

As per my understanding from the book "Mastering bitcoin", a transaction output contains three things Amount - Bitcoin Value in Satoshis Locking-Script-Size - Locking-Script length in bytes, to ...
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1answer
749 views

a few questions about how HD wallet works

I've read through HD wallet from various resources and have got the basic understanding about it, but am still confused by a few details 1) Each non-hardened public keys (thus addresses) can receive ...
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1answer
97 views

How are utxos associated with a particular address?

Is there a way to add or associate utxos with a particular address without creating a transaction?
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2answers
103 views

Does using different addresses affect subsequent transaction size, given the same number of inputs?

I'm quite confused about the input count that affect the transaction size, example: x1 = my receive btc address x2 = my another receive btc address x3 = my another receive btc address Scenario A ...
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1answer
106 views

Editing the utxo database?

Is it possible to manually add utxos to the utxo database? Could this be done by editing the chainstate file?