14

The closest predecessor to Bitcoin is generally agreed to be Wei Dei's b-money proposal. The proposal had a lot of holes. For example, it assumed that money could be created simply by solving hard computational problems. But it contained no mechanism to control currency inflation, so currency would inflate as computing power increased. He actually offered ...


10

Ecash, created by David Chaum, and introduced in 1993, was a cryptographic bearer certificate, though the underlying instrument was national currency (e.g. dollars). It required a central party to keep track of spends to avoid double spends, unlike Bitcoin's distributed peer to peer ledger. It existed until the bankruptcy of its issuer, Digicash, in 1998. ...


9

Bitcoin is a relatively new phenomenon and the peer-review process takes a while, so there is not much out there yet. The most notable is a network analysis of bitcoin transactions done around the alleged "allinvain" theft earlier this year. http://arxiv.org/abs/1107.4524 Other than that, there are currently a few articles published in academic journals ...


9

Are there any others that are particularly effective? Yes, if you know what wallet was used and if its transactions have distinguishing features. For example, multisig wallets usually use p2sh change, but the recipient rarely uses p2sh, which allows to determine the correct change output with high probability. Data-Driven De-Anonymization in Bitcoin ...


7

You're missing the main point: when a selfish miner finds a new block, he keeps it private, does not broadcast it to the network, and starts mining on top of that privately. The rest of the network is still mining on a block that was actually already found, but not broadcast. When the rest of the network finally finds this block, the selfish miner ...


6

There are no academic papers on Bitcoin market behavior. If Bitcoin or another peer-to-peer currency ever develops a significant closed economy, then it would be a rich source of information on the behavior of markets and economies, as the transaction timing, value and locations (for both the sender and receiver in a transaction) of Bitcoin transactions is ...


5

To answer your direct question, transactions will be delayed by the round-trip time light takes to get to the nearest mining community. With low-earth orbit, this really shouldn't make much of a difference. That said, the deeper problem once space travel is wide-spread is that the current protocol is inherently space-time centralized. This is because the ...


5

Biggest problem facing spaceborne bitcoin is communications latency. Consider possible Mars colony. Light speed imposes delay, 4 to 24 minutes. Bad enough this is. If miners on both Earth and Mars, each comes up with new block, possibly extends blockchain twice more, before signal from other crosses distance. Means very long transaction confirmation ...


5

Bitcoin by nature would be a fantastic currency for interplanetary travel, if mankind every reaches that stage. Advantages No physical medium to be transported Relatively low bandwidth to conduct a transaction Considerations to address bitcoin is highly reliant on having accurate system time A transaction would need to be based on Earth's UTC ...


5

Yes, there are studies about decentralized digital currencies. Some of them use ideas very similar to what Bitcoin chose, for instance refer to chapter 2 of this thesis. The following Google scholar serarches will give you more reading: http://scholar.google.ca/scholar?q=Decentralized+digital+currencies&hl=en&btnG=Search&as_sdt=1%2C5&as_sdtp=...


5

Here's the Research article on the Bitcoin wiki: http://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Research You might find some of the authors in the list have related research that is not directly related to Bitcoin so is absent from that list.


5

What use is a transaction that is never relayed? None, unless it is generated by the same person who mines it into a block. But it is not the case that non-standard transactions are never relayed. There are nodes that relay non-standard transactions and miners who include them. How did the transaction make it into a block in the first place if it cannot ...


4

https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Vocabulary


4

Satoshi Nakamoto mentioned Wei Dai's "b-money" and Nick Szabo's "Bit gold", in addition to David Chaum's "digicash" in early discussions of Bitcoin. The latter was centralized, but had strong privacy properties and was very widely cited, researched, and discussed at the time.


4

The report is not heavily disputed. In the hours following the paper's release, several developers are discussing solutions: http://www.mail-archive.com/bitcoin-development@lists.sourceforge.net/msg03128.html and http://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=324413.0 There has not been any evidence that such an attack is imminent or likely even. And remember,...


4

Only a problem that meets a number of very specific requirements can possibly be used. The work must be much easier to verify than to perform. The work must be inseparable from the block it is attached to. The work must not require a central authority to assign it. And so on. I dont see why such a problem cant also be useful. Say the network was trying to ...


4

How would solving these problems secure the network? Miners are rewarded for the proof of work they do because the specific proof of work they do -- hashing block headers -- in fact secures the system. Solving other problems doesn't secure the currency. If you want to pay people for doing work, you certainly can. But don't at all confuse it with the proof-of-...


4

Hashcash is one of the many anti-spam techniques used today, which is essentially a proof-of-work system designed to limit not only email spam but also denial-of-service attacks. A similar proof-of-work methodology is being used in bitcoin for block generation. With an average of 150 billion e-mails sent out on a daily basis I cannot see how this could be ...


3

Not that I know of. Opencoin is still playing around with the protocol, so there probably won't be a white paper until they open source it.


3

Hal Finney created RPOWs. This is probably the closest predecessor to Bitcoin, because it was actually developed and usable (not just a proposal). RPOWs are "reusable proofs of work". Created by solving hard hashcash puzzles, they are then traded by interacting with a database running inside an IBM cryptocard. It has the ability to prove what it is executing ...


3

See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IavQ-Wc8S1U Clemens Cap of Uni Rostock explains the Electronic Bitcoin wallet device he's working on. It's based on adafruit microtouch device. This is a small takeout of Clemens' talk at the Bitcoin Conference in Prague 2011


3

I haven't read any papers trying to analyze the amount of unspent outputs. More often, people are interested in the distribution of address' balances. This could be interesting because it reflects how evenly distributed bitcoin is. I did find this article: http://www.coindesk.com/what-block-chain-analysis-tells-bitcoin/, which seems like it might be of ...


3

Note that there is a new and better paper about this topic by Aviv Zohar et al. - http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06183v1.pdf. None of the solutions suggested have been implemented yet. The attack is significant enough that some solution will need to be found, but that's up to researchers, not developers.


3

I know of one researcher off hand who has worked in this area, Adam Hayes. You can find his papers on the subject at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2648366 http://www.economicpolicyresearch.org/econ/2015/NSSR_WP_052015.pdf You could also look around on http://arxiv.org/. Just searching for 'bitcoin price', I found: http://arxiv.org/...


3

b-money proposes to pay for money minting by means of proof-of-work. The minted money then has the value of the expended computational power. For value transfers it either relied on a synchronous unjammable channel and arbitration, or on a set of trusted servers that had to be regularly audited by the other network participants. In other words, b-money used ...


2

I think that http://bitcoinacademic.wordpress.com could be able to help. There is a wide collection of academic research in many fields. However, you are right, there are not that many peer reviewed journal articles out there, but I do think some of this research is valuable and provides interesting insights.


2

There are some papers on Bitcoin and related topics here: - http://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Research


2

Let's group all the answers in this Wiki. Suggestions shall be provided in new answers, relevant (voted) ones will be included in this list, sorted by category and publication date. Distributed currency models [2008] Chapter 2 of Flavio Garcia PhD thesis: “Formal and Computational Cryptography: Protocols, Hashes and Commitments”. Bitcoin studies [2011, ...


2

The fact that the blockchain records every single bitcoin transaction does mean that it would probably be possible to analyse the data to infer some real market information. Bitcoin days destroyed is one metric made possible by the blockchain that could possibly be used to make some estimation of the velocity of money Similar tools and network analysis ...


2

I'm not aware of any serious studies on the topic but I have seen folks on the forum talking about how bitcoin price seems to correlate with the google trends data on bitcoin-related searches. Compare: Google Trends and MtGox Price. So there's sort of a study on popularity/price ratios, though it's hardly been conducted with any sort of scientific rigor. I'...


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