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Because Base58 initial 1s carry 8 bits of data, but P2SH addresses cannot be represented with a string with initial 1s so it starts with 3 which, like all other cases & characters, encodes 5.86 bits of data. Since the same number of digits encodes fewer bytes, more digits is needed for P2SH. The P2PKH network byte is 0x00 and the rest is the hash and the ...

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