You seem to have confused a couple of things.
Firstly, HD wallets is specified by BIP 32, not BIPs 39 or 44.
Secondly, being able to set your own seed is completely unrelated to setting a custom derivation path. They are two different things that have no effect on each other.
Note that BIP 39 specifies a menmonic scheme, not a seed. When I say mnemonic, I ...
No, Bitcoin Core uses the BIP32 derivation path m/0'/0', and you are unable to change the derivation path of the wallet in Bitcoin Core.
There is however the Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI) that might be what you are looking for.