I'm not sure about Ripple, but I know IOTA specifically uses each transaction to confirm the transactions around it. So instead of a dedicated miner, each user is essentially a "miner" for the short time they are making a transaction.
Not that I'm aware of, in terms of dealing with traditional publicly-facing companies on the exchanges you mention. There were a number of attempts to create new, bitcoin-only exchanges for privately held companies, but few have gotten much traction. This reddit comment goes into great detail about the history of private stock exchanges in bitcoin, which ...
Graphene smart contracts are blockchain wide, meaning they require a hardfork to be deployed. The reasoning behind this is that every node operator can review the contract code, ok it and then democratically vote by joining the hardfork.
It's kind of a hassle compared to ETH/ETC but that provides a few choices of very well tested contracts.
Abstractly spoken, what you have in the current BitAsset 1.0 implementation is that in the market two parties meet that have different estimations for the future price.
Let's define the price to be the price of a bitAsset (i.e. bitUSD) denominated in BTS (base base currency in the BitShares network). For example 0.1 BTS per bitUSD. We need to clarify this ...
You will need the private keys for the addresse(s) you donated from. You can get them from the client you used and need to import them into an account in your client.
Open up you client
Let it sync with the network
Create a new local account (no need to register it)
Got to the settings of your account
Go to the "keys" tab
Import the private keys
Get the ...