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Blockchain forks occur when two blocks are found at the same height. Only one of the two chaintips can become part of the best chain. Each full node will consider the first block it saw to be the best block for that height, until proven otherwise by another chaintip accumulating a greater total difficulty (i.e. adding another block). When another chaintip ...


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Your observation is correct, except that a fork is expected to be activated by a supermajority of nodes and miners in the network. The most recent soft fork had an activation threshold of 950 blocks in specific segments of 1,000 blocks signaling readiness (95% hashrate) for the new rules. So, assuming that only 5% of the mining power don't follow the new ...


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There is no way to explicitly know that your node is on a minority-hashrate fork because to do so would mean awareness of all the new rules that makes the majority-hashrate fork valid, and then determining that more proof-of-work is accumulated on that chain. For that to be possible, you must be running an upgraded node already. There are a few warning ...


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No, it would not. --reindex only handles the data that is stored on disk. Blocks are stored in the order that they are received, which is what brought you to your current view of the blockchain. So all that would happen is that you end up at that same state. Switching to another blockchain fork requires your node to be aware of it, so you need to have ...


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First, a quick overview of what happens when you submit a transaction to the network: Each node that hears about your transaction will check to see if it is valid according to their view of the network. If it is valid, the node may broadcast the transaction to its peers, and may add the transaction to its local mempool. If it is invalid, the transaction ...


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If a node X receives first the blockchain from A, and it approves it, when it receives the blockchain from B, it simply reject it ? It will keep the block locally as an alternate chain, but not immediately discard it. If a node X receives first then blockchain from A, and then the B's blockchain in which also a node C has put another correct block (so is ...


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Is Fibre protocol deserved for rare temporary forking? If blocks are propagate that fast, there are less chances for temporary fork to happen and even if it do, they are short (small length)? Miner can fast continue to work on (what it seems to him) block head of the chain? Well the point is that a miner can more quickly switch to a new block that has been ...


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Soft fork and hard fork here, if you want to accurate, are statements about the conditions under which all nodes are guaranteed to eventually agree on the same chain. So it is about avoiding permanent forks, and the conditions to avoid them. Temporary splits are always possible, even when there is no consensus change at all. A consensus rule change is called ...


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In my opinion block 398364 is the first BIP9 block. Block 370434 was signaling BIP101. As you say, BIP9 was not created at the moment and even if is was meant to signal BIP9, it would also signal csv and segwit which where not active at the time: https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0009/assignments.mediawiki Block 398364 uses a BIP9 format to ...


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The paper you link to includes attacks on blockchain applications as "attacks on blockchain". Personally I would restrict "attacks on blockchain" to literal attacks on the underlying blockchain rather than applications built on top. Regardless there are a number of theoretical attacks on blockchains (51 percent, selfish mining etc) but I ...


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I think the main thing you've missed is the problem GHOST set out to solve. It's first and foremost intended as a scalability/speed upgrade. We want to increase the size of each block and/or decrease the interval between blocks. Either of these would increase the ratio between propagation time and block interval. The higher the ratio is, the more we get that ...


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Soft forks are generally used to upgrade an existing protocol in a backward compatible way. If you were to create a new coin you would need to hard fork the Litecoin protocol. How you do that depends on your motivation. If you just want to create a new coin to make money I would strongly advise against it. There are thousands of altcoins that have no unique ...


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This block signaled support for BitPay's adaptive Block Size Proposal and was mined by slush pool. I asked slush this exact question on twitter back in 2016! https://twitter.com/slush_pool/status/744461234389524480 Note that this answer is not entirely complete, because the BitPay proposal specifies: Miners express their support for this BIP by setting the ...


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Forks of both are equally hard. What you're describing as "Ethereum forks" are actually tokens/smart-contracts that run on the Ethereum network, which isn't very common on Bitcoin (but there's Omni) EDIT: Remved Rootstock as per darosior's clarification. Its only to relation to Bitcoin is that it uses merged mining, just like Namecoin.


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Split chains can be seen as separate coins, except that a transaction with inputs valid in both chains (maybe a coinbase before the fork) would be valid in both. In that miner's chain, the miner can spend his coinbase. The rest of the nodes will see the transaction as invalid and ignore it, as his block isn't part of the main chain. If the miner wants, the ...


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There will be no effect on those other chains since they are now independent of each other, the private key corresponding to your previous UTXO will still hold the same amount of coins at the time of their fork from bitcoin core. Here is what happen when you run -upgradewallet from: https://bitcoin.org/en/release/v0.17.0#upgrading-non-hd-wallets-to-hd-...


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When a fork like this happens, and a new cryptocurrency emerges, the blockchain history from before the fork remains the same. The amounts you have listed are the coins mined from before the fork + coins mined after the fork. The amount mined will always vary, because of possibly different rules or because the blocks don't always get mined exactly every 10 ...


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The BCH chain shares all of the BTC history up until the point of the fork. If you're using the same address for BCH that you did for BTC in the past, any pre-fork BTC transactions will also appear as BCH transactions.


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What is this "time lag" ? When a miner finds a block, they will broadcast it to the network. As with all real-world networks, there is a latency (“lag time”) for this information to be received by the other nodes in the network. Specifically, there will be some amount of latency between the miner that found the block, and other miners on the network. Even ...


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