Binding the p2p port to localhost means that it can not accept incoming connections from anywhere other than software on your own machine.
listen=1 #enable download of new data
This allows incoming connections to whatever is configured by bind, it doesn't have anything to do with downloading data yourself.
It appears that btcwire is the Bitcoin p2p module of btcd and neutrino is Lightning Labs's implementation of BIP157/158 (compact client-side block filters (CBF)). I suspect that the agent identifier btcwire 0.5.0/neutrino indicates LND (Lightning Network Daemon) instances which are configured to allow or prefer CBF for synchronization. Given your experience ...