In this answer, I will go through the steps necessary to redeem the second output of the transaction listed above. The answer will be limited to redeeming an output of the particular type present in this transaction (an output which requires providing a new transaction signed with a private key whose corresponding public key hashes to the hash in the script ...
I know this question is old, but I stumbled upon it looking how to teach myself how multisig addresses work, and I imagine others will to. So I’m going to try to explain the typical flow for creating, adding bitcoins to, and eventually spending a multisig address. This explanation is aimed at beginners, so please excuse my lack of brevity. First off, some ...
Start with an invalid public key
Bitcoin addresses are the pubkeyhash (not pubkey) plus version and checksum information, encoded in base 58.
Bitcoin address = version + RIPEMD-160(SHA-256( Public Key )) + checksum
The steps for converting a public key to an address can be found here:
Since the address uses the ...
Enable txindex=1 in your bitcoin.conf (You'll need to rebuild the database as the transaction index is normally not maintained, start using -reindex to do so), and use the getrawtransaction call to request information about any transaction (it won't work for the genesis block's coinbase transaction though, it's a special case).
Note that this will only give ...
If the only library is closed source, then there's a project to make
an open source one.
If the only library is GPL, then there's a project to make a non-GPL
If the best library is MIT, Boost, new-BSD or public domain, then we
can stop re-writing it.
I don't question that GPL is a good license for operating systems,
What does the bits field represent?
First of all, we need to understand what the 'bits' field means.
Bits is in 'compact' format. This is kind of like a floating point format, but it represents big integers rather than arbitrary real numbers. The first byte indicates the number of bytes the represented number takes up, and the next one to three bytes ...
I am basically doing the same thing for bitcoinmonitor.net. I have a database of addresses to monitor and get notifications from bitcoind for any incoming transaction.
I maintain a patchset for bitcoind which allows setting an url which will be called with any incoming unconfirmed transaction, including transaction details in a json object. Also for any new ...
Really old versions of Bitcoin did not use checksums in network messages (Satoshi incorrectly assumed that the TCP checksum was sufficient). When Bitcoin was changed to start using its own checksums in network messages, version and verack messages could not be immediately updated to use checksums because old clients would be unable to understand checksum-...
(disclaimer: I work on Bitcoin Core)
As Luca already mentioned, you have to distinguish wallet implementations and the fully verifying nodes on the network.
Because of how Satoshi wrote his code (a node and a wallet in the same program), the two are often confused, but this is considered a bad idea now. They can perfectly function independently. The ...
They'd have no problem finding peers for several reasons:
Once the client finds a single peer, it can get a list of peers from that peer.
The client has a built-in list of about 500 peer IP addresses known to be stable.
The client knows several DNS names (such as bitseed.xf2.org and dnsseed.bluematt.me) that resolve to lists of Bitcoin peers.
The client ...
The characters excluded in Base58 are 0OIl. oiL are allowed, making these two valid addresses.
It is impossible to send to an invalid address, as Bitcoin transaction scripts actually include raw 160-bit hashes (which by definition have a one-to-one correspondence with valid addresses), not addresses. Bitcoin clients will simply refuse to do anything if an ...
The answers to your questions, in order:
The fee paid for a transaction is determined by the size of a transaction. Currently, if you want to do fancy things with bitcoins, you need to put a script in the transaction that sends them -- each output includes a script giving the conditions under which it may be used as an input. OP_EVAL, p2sh and CHV (check-...
None. It's impossible to send bitcoins to an invalid address. Those addresses are valid, though they might not be owned by anyone. Look at pszBase58 more carefully: 'o', 'i', and 'L' are allowed. The first few posts in that forum thread are wrong.
The network doesn't know anything about Bitcoin addresses. At the network level, you never send bitcoins to an ...
Chris Larsen has been publicly identified as CEO of OpenCoin, the company behind the new Ripple. The core developers have been publicly identified as Jed McCaleb, Arthur Britto, Stefan Thomas, and me (David Schwartz).
The reference implementation, Bitcoin Core, is written primarily in C++, with various resource files and scripts in other languages.
Another implementation, mainly used in lightweight clients like MultiBit and Bitcoin Wallet (Android), is bitcoinj. It is written in Java.
The statements are not on the stack, they're in the script. They start immediately after the OP_IF. They end at the first OP_ELSE or OP_ENDIF, assuming there isn't a nested OP_IF or OP_NOTIF. So it looks like this
// script to put a number on the stack
// script that runs only if the number isn't zero
// script that runs no matter what
If scripts were Turing-complete, you could construct a fairly short script that took an extremely long time to run (a la the Busy Beaver) or contained an infinite loop. This would tend to result in a denial of service against everyone on the network, when they tried to verify the transaction.
And there would be no general way to tell whether a script ...
The basic elliptic curve operation is addition of points.
The operation of applying this addition repeatedly is called the scalar multiplication of a point by an integer.
The private key is the 'scalar', the point being multiplied is the 'Generator' point, the result is the public key.
Scalar multiplication is basically repeated addition. Multiplying the ...
To understand Bitcoin Core, the best resource is probably the source code itself:
To help understand what is going on in the code, try the developer documentation and the Princeton Bitcoin Book. Keep in mind that the code gets updated faster than the documentation, so the code should be your source of truth.
New clients that do not yet have addresses stored in the addr.dat will use irc as a bootstrapping mechanism. Even with this limited role, using IRC exposes a weakness: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Weaknesses#Cancer_nodes
The IRC bootstrapping will be going away in the future [Edit: as David write, it is deprecated in the latest version], in favor of the ...
I'm assuming you mean what will happen to Bitcoin if SHA256 is discovered to no longer be suitable for use as Bitcoin uses it. First, such a thing is likely to happen very gradually. We'll first see hints of weaknesses and attacks that currently take millions of years will shrink to thousands of years and then hundreds of years. So there will be plenty of ...
also, the official client bitcoind has a 'validateaddress' command. see https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Original_Bitcoin_client/API_Calls_list
you could call that from your code if you happen to have bitcoind running already.
I would recommend using Homebrew or MacPorts to manage this dependency.
The Homebrew package is simply pcre or pcre++.
brew install pcre pcre++
The MacPorts packages are pcre and pcrexx.
sudo port install pcre pcrexx
If you just want to build Bitcoind once then Gavin's method seems like the most straight forward. If you want to develop for Bitcoin it's worth setting up an Xcode project.
Create a blank Xcode project in your bitcoin root directory.
Create a new target called bitcoind
Drag all the files from the src folder into Xcode, make sure you have bitcoin selected in ...
Vanitygen is a command-line tool that can be used to generate random bitcoin addresses. It also has OpenCL-compatible GPU version called oclvanitygen. Both can be built from source, GitHub, and both are included in the Windows binary package. PGP signature here.
There are four basic ways, and they all work:
Come up with an address that passes the basic sanity checks but is internally invalid. You can know for sure that no key could possibly match this address.
Put strings of characters in the address that are way beyond what anyone could generate in a vanity address. For example, if the Bitcoin address has "...