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13 votes

What is meant by Bitcoin dust?

To understand 'dust' you must understand a few things: Firstly, a UTXO is an unspent transaction output. This is essentially a piece of bitcoin somewhere on the blockchain that is unspent. To create ...
Noel O'Donnell's user avatar
12 votes
Accepted

Since Bitcoin Core 0.14.0, how does a node with default settings compute the dust limit?

The dust limit in 0.14.0+ is set by a value called the dustRelayFee. This is separate from the minRelayTxFee although it has the same default value of 1 satoshi/byte. That is what is used to calculate ...
Ava Chow's user avatar
  • 70.9k
8 votes

Deanonymizing dust attack

A deanonymizing dust attack works by sending dust to large amounts of addresses. The assumption is that when people send transactions/perform consolidations in the future, dust from multiple addresses ...
Raghav Sood's user avatar
  • 17.1k
8 votes
Accepted

How was the dust limit of 546 satoshis was chosen? Why not 550 satoshis?

The dust limit is not actually fixed, technically - it varies based on the type of output. 546 satoshis is simply the most commonly known one, for a p2pkh output. Being the longest-lived output type, ...
Raghav Sood's user avatar
  • 17.1k
7 votes

How many useable UTXOs are possible with BTC inside them?

There are currently already about 84.3M UTXOs. The consensus rules don't restrict the UTXO set size except that the UTXO set growth is delimited by the available blockspace. The smallest output type ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.9k
7 votes
Accepted

What is the dust limit on Bitcoin Cash transactions?

Bitcoin-ABC (the reference implementation of Bitcoin Cash) is a fork of bitcoin core, there are no big changes to the settings. so bitcoin cash dust limit is exactly the same as Bitcoin which is 546 ...
Tailer's user avatar
  • 3,669
6 votes
Accepted

Can a transaction have a single 0-value OP_RETURN as its only output?

Yes. Such transactions are valid and standard.
Ava Chow's user avatar
  • 70.9k
6 votes
Accepted

Micro-payments definition and ideal platform

I do not think there is anything to reach consensus on. very small payments (in relation to the transaction fees) they belong to neither (some developers will create a micro-payment solution on the ...
karask's user avatar
  • 2,540
6 votes
Accepted

Can simply not spending the dust thwart dusting attacks?

Can't the attacker simply trace the non-dust UTXOs of that address? Of course, but they can do that without sending dust to it as well. The point of a dusting attack is making sure the wallet now has ...
Pieter Wuille's user avatar
5 votes

Can you send amounts that would typically be considered 'dust' through the Lightning Network?

You are correct that small payments would be a liability in the case of uncooperative nodes in a channel. I also believe you are correct that when the values get small enough, the trust-less nature ...
Jestin's user avatar
  • 8,812
5 votes

How was the dust limit of 546 satoshis was chosen? Why not 550 satoshis?

Bitcoin core sets the dust limit to a value where spending an output would exceed 1/3 of its value. This calculation is based on the node's setting for the minimum relay transaction fee (see option -...
thalisk's user avatar
  • 483
4 votes

Deanonymizing dust attack

To add to Raghav's answer: Practically, as a typical user, it can be difficult to deal with a dust attack. There is no way to stop or disallow the receiving of a transaction, so the user can only ...
chytrik's user avatar
  • 18.3k
4 votes
Accepted

Dust threshold for Testnet

The dust threshold is defined as (output_weight+input_weight)×discard_feerate. The discard_feerate is defined as 3 s/vB. It follows that you need to know the input_weight to calculate an output's dust ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.9k
4 votes
Accepted

Does an uneconomical output need to be kept in the UTXO set?

Bitcoin Core removes provably unspendable outputs from the UTXO set, since by definition we know they will never be used to verify new transactions. One could, in theory, do the same for UTXOs that ...
stickies-v's user avatar
3 votes

Can dust outputs become an economic problem?

"Dust" refers to UTXOs whose cost of spending is a significant portion of their total value. In Bitcoin Core's source code, "dust" specifically refers to UTXOs that are smaller ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.9k
3 votes

What cryptocurrency is most suitable to send small amounts?

Other chains might be off topic here, but Bitcoin offers you at least two options. You can choose one from three, the first two are Bitcoin: Enhance your calm. Using minimum fees it'll take longer, ...
Mercedes's user avatar
  • 814
3 votes
Accepted

Wallet design: What to do with dust amounts in change?

I've done some research on a related topic* and I'd say it depends on your assumptions what will happen with the value of Bitcoin, the fee rate, and the cost of creating transactions in the long run. ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.9k
3 votes

In bitcoin core, how to avoid the dust exception?

The current dust limit fee rate is 3 satoshis/byte. If, at 3 satoshis per byte, an output would cost more in fees to spend that it has in value, then that output is considered dust. If you are sending ...
Ava Chow's user avatar
  • 70.9k
3 votes

Why is the smallest transaction value 5340 satoshis? What is so special about that particular number?

The smallest transaction value is actually 0 as you are allowed to create 0 value outputs. However such transactions are considered non-standard and thus will not be relayed. But they are completely ...
Ava Chow's user avatar
  • 70.9k
3 votes

why not change bitcoin consensus code to reject transactions sent to previously used addresses?

There are three major reasons I can think of for not implementing this change. First, it would massively impact transaction validation. To fully validate transactions, you only need to store the UTXO ...
Vojtěch Strnad's user avatar
2 votes

What is meant by Bitcoin dust?

Comment definition of dust from the actual Bitcoin repo on Github found on file policy.cpp: // "Dust" is defined in terms of dustRelayFee, // which has units satoshis-per-kilobyte. // If you'...
Albert Renshaw's user avatar
2 votes

What cryptocurrency is most suitable to send small amounts?

With lightning you can send 1 sat (or even less) and there is almost no fee.
Efe's user avatar
  • 407
2 votes
Accepted

What's the best way to get rid of 1 satoshi dust?

In the current environment, I doubt that you can. Blocks are full these days, and the block space needed to spend your UTXO, whether as its own transaction or as one input of many similar ...
Nate Eldredge's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

walletcreatefundedpsbt declined with "Transaction amount too small" but the input is definitely not dust

below 0.0000023 The dust limit applies to each output of a transaction including potential change outputs. The 230 sat output is below the dust limit.
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.9k
2 votes
Accepted

What effect on Lightning Network would be of setting dustrelayfee to 0.003 by all nodes?

The dustrelayfee is used to calculate dust thresholds. The change you propose would increase all dust thresholds by a factor of one hundred. This would make transactions with recipient or change ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 75.9k
1 vote

I have been robbed after dust attack

The transaction taking the coins is very strange, the criminals have obviously got a strategy which requires the multiple denominations of UTXO's. It's not clear what this is but regardless the TXID ...
Andrew Rassle's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Is the dust output limit the same for p2wpkh and p2wsh?

I just realized that there are in fact these two lines which takes into account the size of CTxOut: size_t nSize = GetSerializeSize(txout); ... ... nSize += (32 + 4 + 1 + (107 / WITNESS_SCALE_FACTOR) ...
Darius's user avatar
  • 789
1 vote

Does Bitcoin dust limit include miner fee as well?

For a transaction to be standard, Each of the outputs has to be at least 546 satoshis. (except an OP_RETURN output, which has some extra rules). Testnet does not enforce standardness rules. You can ...
MCCCS's user avatar
  • 10.2k
1 vote
Accepted

Electrum 3.3.2 the transaction was rejected by network rules dust error.... Tried different nodes, Doesnt Work

When you try to send an amount that is too small, it considers dust and is rejected. Try something more than 1000 sats as of 2021
Guerlando OCs's user avatar
1 vote

Large number of dust inputs sum to nice round numbers. How and what wallet used?

Another explanation might be that one of the input transactions is intentionally created to cause the sum to be a round number.
Bolton Bailey's user avatar

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