17

It's possible that this could happen just because there aren't any transactions to be mined. Early on in the bitcoin block chain, this was often the case. This could also happen if two blocks are solved on top of each other in a very short amount of time, with not much time for new transactions to be broadcasted in between. Today, however, more often than ...


13

It has no transactions other than the coinbase transaction. However, the transaction's coinbase output is 0 BTC. Here's the valuable piece of information that you are looking for: Coinbase outputs may be set lower than the max. value (12.5 currently), and the block will be valid (if the difficulty is lower than the target, as always) Also look at: https:/...


11

SPV mining is the term commonly used for 'less-than-full-node-validation' mining. It usually means that miners skip the verification of the block and the transactions within, and immediately start mining a new block referencing the just-solved block header. However, since they don't know what is in the last block, they have to mine without any transactions (...


9

There is no minimum size restraint on blocks and transactions. However, due to the nature of blocks and transactions, there is a practical minimum. The smallest transaction I can think of is 61 bytes. It is a transaction that spends an OP_TRUE anyonecanspend output and creates 1 OP_TRUE anyonecanspend output. The smallest block I can think of is 146 bytes. ...


8

Blocks can include transactions, but it is not necessary for transactions to occur in order to create blocks. The only transaction that is required in a block is the coinbase transaction which is the transaction that creates new bitcoins and collects the transaction fees. This transaction is created by each miner individually for their block attempts (as it ...


7

This is essentially correct: the protocol leaves it up to the miner to decide which transactions to include in a block. There is no requirement for them to include any transactions at all, other than the "coinbase" transaction which specifies where to send the block reward. However, most transactions have fees attached, which the miner can collect only by ...


6

This is the previous block, 289790 Number Of Transactions 86 Height 289790 (Main Chain) Timestamp 2014-03-09 23:24:02 Size 43.853 KB This is the block you are talking about Number Of Transactions 1 Height 289791 (Main Chain) Timestamp 2014-03-09 23:30:23 Size 0.183 KB As you can see by the size of the previous block, there was little ...


5

Yes, you are correct that miners get to decide whether to include transactions in their block that they're mining. The protocol itself doesn't force them to include any transactions. Instead, they have a financial incentive to include transactions because they can collect transaction fees and profit more. It's an interesting trade-off for them, because ...


5

It is actually less likely to occur by the same miner. The reason for this is the fact that the miner that found the Block will have already validated it, thus it knows which transactions from the mempool were used. If the block is mined by another person their mining software might not have validated the previously mined block yet, which causes them to be ...


4

It is fairly normal and there 2 common reasons for this. The first reason is when 2 blocks are solved relatively close to each other in time. The second of these blocks may not have any transactions to include. The second reason is that bigger blocks take longer to propagate across the network. It is often in the interest of the block solver to ...


4

Transactions are not necessary to mine blocks. In simple terms: mining a block = finding a hash that matches with the previous block's hash + optionally a bunch of unconfirmed transactions. A block doesn't need to include any transactions. And if there are unconfirmed transactions, a block may include all, some, or none of them. If there are, it's in the ...


4

There are always transactions waiting to be verified. Every Bitcoin transaction ever performed is waiting to get one more verification. Even if you don't include any transactions in a block, that block adds proof of work to every transaction in every prior block.


4

Block contains "RSKBLOCK:Ý¿QzßýKÊwQP[9É: ÔyüN9ÝW³GÆ$", so I think that it is related to www.rsk.co. Probably Sidechains synchronization. EDIT: Binary hex: "52534b424c4f434b3addbf517adf8ffd4bca7751505b39c9013a0d1fd479fc4e901b39dd57b347c624" Source: https://blockchain.info/tx/9bf8853b3a823bbfa1e54017ae11a9e1f4d08a854dcce9f24e08114f2c921182?show_adv=true


4

There is virtually no "empty blocks". All blocks except the genesis block is actually headed by the hash of preceding block and then followed by the miners reward of the previous block in terms of the first transaction of the current block. Therefore there should always be at least one transaction.


4

Generally, if you'd like to know why a miner mined an empty block, you would have to ask them. They could do so for any reason, really. For a more specific example of a technical example of why a miner may mine an empty block: As a miner, you'll want to include transactions that pay fees in your blocks, in order to maximize your profits when a valid block ...


3

How this can be possible and what for? A miner is under no obligation to include transactions in a block, but there are incentives for them to do so: the miner will make more revenue, since they will collect transaction fees miners are invested in their operations, and thus want to see bitcoin succeed. If no miners processed transactions, bitcoin would not ...


3

The goal of mining is essentially to (i) create new coins out of thin-air and (ii) to secure the network from double-spending attacks. So no, the act of mining does not create new transactions to be mined, and it does not create work for itself. It validates transactions and keeps the nodes of the network on the same state.


3

No, it isn't any kind of abuse. You don't have to worry (well perhaps a bit) about 'transaction starvation' (i.e. transactions that get never included because miners refuse to include them), as it is unlikely that one person (or more cooperating) will obtain 51% of the hash power. And even when they obtain 51%, they will be basically cutting themselves from ...


3

what's inside those empty blocks? (i mean, what is "computationally expensive" from an empty item) Empty blocks still contain data. They aren't devoid of data, they simply do not have transactions other than the coin generation transaction (known as the coinbase transaction) in them. Since an empty block does not contain any transactions from the Bitcoin ...


3

I am not able to understand the difference between a bitcoin transaction block and a bitcoin as a coin. Transactions are coins? There is no difference. This is because there is no distinct data entity that is a bitcoin. The nearest thing to a coin is a part of a transaction record where a recipient's amount (an output amount) is recorded which has not ...


2

BTC.com has done this 5 times in the last 6 days. With the number of unconfirmed transactions been larger than 2-3 full blocks, clearly lack of available transactions is not the problem. It is also interesting that is coming from the same miner pool. https://blockchain.info/blocks/BTC.com


2

Now my question is, we hash the previous block chain's hash with transactions and the nonce? We can look at the form of a block here. The information that is actually hashed include the version, previous block hash, the merkle root of the transactions the miner has included in the block, the current time, the target difficulty of the block, and the 32bit ...


2

Yes. The only things you need to create a block are: Hash of topmost block It's height


2

Simple: they don't. It's not in the best interest of the network for miners to mine zero-transaction blocks. It means that the transactions in the mempool will have to wait for the next block to be solved before being included. This phenomenon of blocks with no transactions is a product of the block reward still being so relatively high. As it decreases, ...


2

Miners are free to mine empty blocks if they want. They do not HAVE to include transactions in them. Any block that is well-formatted and extends the blockchain is valid. Miners who do that (mining empty blocks) get the coinbase transaction (12.5BTC) and don't have to deal with the "hassle" of checking pending transactions. They lose the potential ...


2

Whenever data is serialized to bytes in Bitcoin, the bytes are represented in little endian. (Data that is already in bytes does not need to be serialized or otherwise converted.) When there is only a single element in the merkle tree, the root of the tree is the hash of that element. Therefore, you would only need to serialize the coinbase transaction and ...


2

Yes. A block is valid even with no transactions other than the coinbase transaction. There have been many such blocks. This is especially true for early blocks of the blockchain. Close to 19% of mined Bitcoin blocks were empty - Steven Zheng. October 17, 2018 A total of 71 empty blocks were mined in the first five months of 2020, accounting for 0.3% of the ...


2

If the coinbase transaction is the only transaction in a block, then the block's transaction Merkle root is equal to the coinbase transaction's txid.


1

This article gives a nice summary of potential causes and solutions to empty blocks mining: https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/decline-empty-blocks-has-increased-bitcoins-transaction-capacity/. AntPools may just be late at implementing the solutions...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible