I'll use the definitions used in this presentation from Jonathan Metzman at Black Hat 2019 but obviously this is a relatively new field and so there may well be disagreement amongst researchers and academia on formal definitions.
In this presentation Metzman explained how the first rudmimentary fuzzers were completely black box meaning they knew nothing ...
In the paper The Art, Science and Engineering of Fuzzing the authors define fuzzing as “a process of repeatedly running a program with generated inputs that may be syntactically or semantically malformed”.
Fuzz testing is not a new concept. It was introduced in the early 1990s but at the present time its potential for finding bugs has not been fully explored ...
For a list of historical Bitcoin related CVEs (common vulnerabilities and exposures) see the Bitcoin wiki.
However, for a focus on Bitcoin Core vulnerabilities found by fuzzing there is a resource on the Bitcoin Core dev wiki on "fuzz trophies".
Marco Falke stated here in May 2021:
I did a survey of all bugs found first by fuzzing, excluding known
The primary reason that Bitcoin Core doesn't use OSS-Fuzz is that as Greg Maxwell states in this secp256k1 issue, there is an:
extremely short timeframe mandatory disclosure (edit: 90 days) which basically made
anything except blindly installed automatic updates a viable way to
Pieter Wuille adds some additional context here: