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For a given network, consensus means achieving a consistent view of the global state between all participants. For Bitcoin, this means that all nodes/wallets should be considering the same utxo set. For Ethereum, it involves all participants having the same state trie. Minor other variations exist for other networks. Mining and protocol versions are simply ...


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There are companies such as Chainalysis (no affiliation) and Elliptic (also no affiliation) that attempt to perform such analysis and group addresses into clusters based on the entity (exchange, scam, unknown, mining pool, gambling, payment services, etc.) that is believed to control them. They offer their analysis to exchanges, governments, merchants, etc. ...


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No hash function has ever been broken in a way that would be meaningfully have an impact to Bitcoin. It’s not even a consideration, other than for OP_SHA1 which has no non-academic usage in Bitcoin.


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Raghav's answer is nicely concise and comprehensive, but I thought I could elaborate on this last (important!) point: Would governance therefore be the developers who have permission to merge changes into the main bitcoin code base? At any given point in time since the genesis block, the Bitcoin network's nodes have been in consensus about what the state ...


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