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The blockchain is the mechanism for Bitcoin to converge on one shared state. Participants submit payment orders in the form of unconfirmed transactions to the network from which miners then select a set of transactions into their block candidates. The Merkle root hereby represents a commitment to one specific list of previously unconfirmed, valid ...


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For every new block there is a new Merkle tree of transactions. Once the block is included in the blockchain the Merkle tree (and hence the Merkle root) for that block is not changed. In your example, if you are a miner trying to mine a block you can choose to continue with transactions A, B, C and D or form a new Merkle tree with A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. ...


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Merkle root is block specific, so each block has a different merkle root. If transactions A-H belong to the same block, then you will have to calculate the merkle root using all the transactions from A-H, if not you will have merkle root containing transaction A-D in Block N and merkle root containing transactions E-H in block N+1. Blocks commit to the ...


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I’ll add a second answer, that is an analogy instead of a technical explanation. As analogies go, it isn’t perfect, but I think it works well enough. Consider a situation in which you must fill in a lottery card, by picking 5 numbers. This lottery card is then stamped by the lottery authority, so that you cannot change your numbers later to claim a false ...


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why the merkle root must be saved and not calculated on the fly during the verification/validation process The merkle root is a part of the block header. When mining, it is the block header that miners must construct and then hash, in an attempt to find a valid block. So when mining, a miner must commmit to the transactions that will be included in their ...


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I suspect you are confusing merkle roots and merkle trees. A merkle tree is the binary tree of hashes. The leaves are individual transactions, which are hashed, and then the hashes hashed together until only one hash remains. That remaining hash is the merkle root. A merkle branch is a particular path down the merkle tree from the merkle root to a ...


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Full nodes do not maintain the blockchain only for servicing lightweight nodes. The primary reason is for its own security so as to ensure that no blocks that it has received over the network have been tampered with and they all meet the consensus requirements. In order to verify that the blocks are linked going back to the genesis block, the full node will ...


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The block header contains the merkle root, but the full block itself contains all the transactions, in order of their appearance as merkle leaves.


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We have a unique merkle root for each block in Bitcoin. Next block's merkle root does not use the merkle root of the previous blocks as a proof. As a result we do not have old merkle tree hash and new merkle tree hash. Also, the way of pairwise hashing is different. If you look at Figure 2 in your link, the certificates d4 and d5 are at a higher level than ...


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