What you are describing is essentially a majority attack. A miner (or group of colluding miners) with a majority of hashpower can censor arbitrary transactions, and blocks that include them. This question has more info about what an attacker can do.
Crucially: a majority of hashpower can create blocks at a faster rate (on average) than the minority. So if ...
Yes, miners can censor transactions. A mining pool (or solo miner) can choose to not add a transaction to any blocks that they create. And, of course, this can be done dynamically so that transactions that match whatever arbitrary rules they want can be disallowed.
However this only effects one mining pool or miner. Other miners will not necessarily follow ...
No, this is not profitable.
Mining Bitcoin on anything except specialized ASIC machines is pointless, and you will never see any returns, especially with a phone.
Even with ASICs, profits in the range of 1000-3000 would require tens of thousands of up front investment, access to cheap power, and storage space for the machines.