The monetary incentive for mining, especially how block rewards are generated, claimed, and composed. For questions specific to coin generation transactions (coinbase transactions) use the tag Coinbase-Transaction. For questions about the block reward halving, use the tag reward-schedule.
Mining rewards the miner who finds a block with some number of Bitcoin. This reward is dependent on the block subsidy at the time (the block subsidy halves every 210000 blocks and will eventually reach zero) and the transaction fees paid by all transactions in the block. The block reward is paid to the miner via the coin generation transaction, known as the coinbase-transaction, which is the first transaction of every block. The block reward can be no more than the current block subsidy plus the sum of all of the transactions-fees paid by all of the transactions in the block.