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8

There’s no such thing as a block without a coinbase transaction. Even if the block reward plus fees is zero, it is still a mandatory transaction at the start of every block, it just pays nothing.


4

Do mining pools expose attempted nonce to the public ? No, that's pointless and would be completely infeasible. The combined network tries over 100 billion billion nonces per second (as of december 2020, it's around 120 exahash/s). I would think no because it would be counter competitive. I can let a giant mining farm tell me what nonces not to use That's ...


4

It depends on what you mean. (Review: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Block_hashing_algorithm) Is it possible that with today's difficulty target a miner can exhaust the 32-bit nonce space in the block header without "solving" the block? Yes. But then the miner can change bits in the coinbase transaction (including a field unofficially called extraNonce)...


3

How do miners decide how many transactions they should have in a block in order to mine 1 bitcoin? The amount of work miners do has no impact on the amount of Bitcoin they make. The block subsidy is a fixed amount, and transaction fees are determined from transactions. Mining 1 Bitcoin does not require some specific amount of work. Miners determine how many ...


3

There is no advantage or disadvantage for miners to include transactions, except for: If they don't include transactions they don't receive the fees (which are still dwarfed by subsidy for now, but perhaps not forever), though fees can also be paid out of band. It takes some time to build a block candidate with new transactions immediately after learning ...


3

(At the current difficulty) most blocks are unsolvable, but your question makes me ponder on how you think of a block hashing will always yield a result? Hashing always yields a result. Most of the time it is not a result that the protocol is looking for because of the difficulty. In essence you have some data X, you hash it to a number Y, and if Y is less ...


2

There are two values in play here, and the way your question is phrased makes me think you're confusing them. Every block has: A hash (computed by double-SHA256 the block header, including timestamp, nonce, version, Merkle root, nBits which encodes the difficulty, and previous block hash) A target (computed from the difficulty only) ...


2

I think you're confusing a few things. A SHA-256 hash is a single value that is 64 hexadecimal characters long. This hash can be seen as simply a very long number. A target hash in cryptocurrencies is the maximum value that a successful block hash should be. Miners are aiming to generate a block where the hash, when seen as a large number, is a smaller ...


2

The nonce in a signature is different from the nonce used in the block header. These are unrelated to each other. They only share a name because the term nonce is a generic word that means "a number used only once." A signature is composed of two numbers: R and s. R is the X coordinate of a random nonce k multiplied by the generator point G. It is ...


1

A really unsolvable block will hint for a weakness in SHA-256 algorithm. SHA-256 is expected to generate evenly distributed hashes in respect to the hashed text and to any part of it (in Bitcoin block, this includes the content of the block and the nonce value). The nonce is as big as the hash itself, so in theory using all possible values of the nonce will ...


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