Sorry to necro this post, but these problems persist to this day, even on Satoshi:v0.20.x.
Here's a quick fix to alleviate your issues. Manually specify peer IPs to console. If you're using Bitcoin-qt, use ctrl+t to open the console, and type in:
addnode <node IP>:<node port, almost always 8333> onetry
for each IP you want.
You can get node IPs ...