14 votes
Accepted

How is SegWit a soft fork?

You're confusing transactions (the abstract object) and their serialization (the bytes on the wire in the P2P protocol or on disk). Sure, SegWit introduces an extension to the P2P protocol (BIP144), ...
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12 votes
Accepted

What are the downsides to enabling potentially suboptimal or unused opcodes in a future soft fork?

Every piece of additional consensus logic has implementation and ongoing maintenance cost which is perpetual and can never be removed without potentially confiscating some user's assets. When Satoshi ...
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  • 7,479
7 votes
Accepted

Can old coins be banned by a soft fork?

Yes, since blacklisting a set of UTXOs would be done by adding more rules and thus restricting the set of allowed transactions, technically such a change could be introduced as a soft fork by the ...
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  • 63.3k
7 votes
Accepted

How do BIP8 and BIP9 differ, how are they alike?

Early soft forks each had their own activation method included in the proposal which relied on flagdays or block version signaling. The latter only allowed a single proposal to be considered ...
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  • 63.3k
6 votes

Should block height or MTP or a mixture of both be used in a soft fork activation mechanism?

Should block height or MTP (median time past [...]) or a mixture of both be used in an activation mechanism like BIP 8 or BIP 9 for defining the timings of the state transitions? What are the ...
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5 votes

Can old coins be banned by a soft fork?

Others have commented on the technical possibility of this, so I'll address the economics: I don't believe any smart miner would do this. Why? Because it would destroy confidence in the network. If ...
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  • 17.3k
5 votes

Can old coins be banned by a soft fork?

This could be implemented theoretically, but this idea will certainly never be implemented. It's because: You don't know which addresses exactly are owned by Satoshi Nakamoto. This idea is against ...
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  • 747
4 votes

Why is a softfork unable to divide the network?

I was wondering why a soft fork cannot in principle divide the Bitcoin network as a hard fork can. A soft fork absolutely can divide the Bitcoin network, in principle, if you don't specify any other ...
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4 votes
Accepted

How do we know which soft-forks were implemented using User-Activated Soft Fork or Miner-Activated Soft Fork?

Most past soft forks have been deployed with miner activated soft forks, and we know this because the deployment mechanisms used only allowed for miner activated soft forks. For a user activated soft ...
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  • 61.3k
4 votes
Accepted

How can I follow the progress of miner signaling for Taproot activation during the Speedy Trial deployment?

Hampus Sjöberg has set up a site (https://taproot.watch/) with a graphic for which blocks have signaled for Taproot activation and a breakdown by mining pools. It was announced here on Twitter. AJ ...
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4 votes
Accepted

How are OP_CSV and OP_CLTV backwards compatible

When it comes to soft forks, backwards compatible does not mean that old nodes will follow the new rules - that would mean that the new rules are already implemented. Rather backwards compatible means ...
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  • 61.3k
3 votes
Accepted

Would it be possible to create a soft-fork for reducing miner reward?

Yes, it is possible. The rule regarding the coinbase reward is that a miner cannot take more than the block subsidy plus the transaction fees in the block. This means that a miner can opt to take less ...
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  • 61.3k
3 votes
Accepted

What type of fork is Litecoin?

It's considered a source code fork, or an altcoin, neither a hard fork nor soft fork of bitcoin. To be classified as a soft/hard fork, it should share some of the same chain from the genesis block. LN ...
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  • 11.3k
3 votes
Accepted

Which nVersion bit is the "hard fork bit?"

Bit 31 is sometimes referred to as the hard fork bit. BIP34 put a constraint on version numbers to be 2 or higher. As the block version is a 32-bit signed integer, setting its highest bit results in ...
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3 votes
Accepted

What are the next forks of the Blockchain that have been announced?

What are the next forks of the Blockchain that have been announced? Just to be clear, anyone can "announce a fork", but adoption and news of said fork depends on the market demand for the new coin. ...
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3 votes
Accepted

why bip 34 uses two step on MASF(Miner Activated Soft Fork)?

The two thresholds enable two different rules. If more than 750 of the last 1000 blocks are version 2, the network starts enforcing BIP34 - at this point, blocks that claim to be version 2 but do not ...
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  • 16.5k
3 votes
Accepted

Does a soft fork result in two different blockchain versions?

Your observation is correct, except that a fork is expected to be activated by a supermajority of nodes and miners in the network. The most recent soft fork had an activation threshold of 950 blocks ...
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  • 63.3k
3 votes

How do nodes verify backwards incompatible blocks?

Old blocks in the chain are still valid under the current consensus rules. In a broad sense, this is because the code will be written to enact rule changes at specific block heights, and thus older ...
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  • 17.3k
3 votes
Accepted

Broadcasting deprecated block version

First of all, let me clarify that this website just collects the sentiment of miners—it is in no way binding for the actual activation for which code isn't even proposed. Assuming that Taproot will ...
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  • 63.3k
3 votes

Were anyone-can-spend transactions valid before SegWit?

there was nothing to "prohibit" a miner from spending/stealing someone else's funds That was never true, so far as I know, miners have never been able to spend other people's funds seen in ...
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3 votes

What is the benefit of forced signaling in a soft fork activation mechanism?

It depends highly on who you ask. Indeed, I (and several others) have argued that there is no reason whatsoever for forced-signaling. Greg Maxwell wrote a long and in-depth piece about why it provides ...
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3 votes
Accepted

Will the miner be provided with reward if a hard fork occurs?

Miners are rewarded iff they produce valid blocks that become a part of the blockchain record. The reward is included in the block itself, so the only way to receive a block reward is by publishing a ...
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  • 17.3k
3 votes
Accepted

Does a hard fork need to include a soft fork as well?

Yes, a hard fork needs wipeout protection to prevent nodes from reorganizing to a chaintip with more work following the old rules, if the hard fork only loosens rules. (I.e. I would say that a hard ...
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  • 63.3k
2 votes

Where can I find a complete list of Bitcoin forks (soft, hard, intentional and unintentional)

The best resource I've seen that answers this question is this BitMEX blog post. It includes some of the early Satoshi era forks that haven't been included in any existing answers.
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2 votes
Accepted

Where can I find a complete list of Bitcoin forks (soft, hard, intentional and unintentional)

There is a paper that provides extensive detail on the history of all kind of forks on Bitocin, Ethereum and Ethereum Classic, you can read it here, Atomically Trading with Roger: Gambling on the ...
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2 votes

What is the limitations in Bitcoin's network that can't be change by a Soft Fork?

Bitcoin.org's developer documentation has a pretty good description of the consensus rules, but it does not and cannot describe them fully. This is because the consensus rules are dictated by the code ...
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  • 61.3k
2 votes
Accepted

What are the risks of a lower-than-95% activation threshold for soft forks (particularly SegWit)?

There are two related risks: Activating without a majority of hashpower supporting it over the long term. Let's use BIP 66 as an example. Imagine it had activated at the 95% threshold, but 30 ...
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  • 28.7k
2 votes

What if old blocks invalidate with soft fork?

The fix is in deciding when the change takes effect, and only validating with the stricter rule from that point onwards. The easiest way is to decide upon a block height, say: 695,837 and all the ...
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2 votes

Why is a softfork unable to divide the network?

Under a hard fork, new nodes think old-style blocks are invalid, and old nodes think new-style blocks are invalid. Thus if old nodes continue creating old blocks, we get a chain of old blocks, and a ...
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2 votes

Why is a softfork unable to divide the network?

Soft forks cannot divide the network because they occur with miner consensus. For this to happen, miners signal that they are ready and will enforce the new rules after they activate by setting ...
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  • 61.3k

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