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A block must have exactly one coinbase transaction as its first transaction. This transaction may collect the transaction fees and create new coins according to the subsidy. It can assign those funds to one or multiple outputs. If the block includes any segwit transactions, it also has to include an op_return output with a witness commitment. There have been ...


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To my understanding, a miner will define the output address for the payout of the coinbase transaction prior to solving the hash and sharing the new block. Changing the output value of the coinbase transaction would break protocol rules and the block would be invalid and not added on top of the chain.


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Fees spike as more and more people want to move coins around on-chain. Each of the areas you have red boxes around were "bull markets" where the price was significantly appreciating. This appreciating price brought more and more activity to the Bitcoin network. New entrants were buying coins and moving them around, old hodlers were moving coins ...


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Addresses are not account balances from which BTC amounts are deducted from. Addresses are only shorthand specifiers for an output script. The amount actually comes from UTXOs, each of which has a script which may correspond to an address. The address the amount being spent (including fees) will "come from" depends on the UTXOs. Address A could ...


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