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Public key cryptography has nothing to do with 51% attacks. The only thing a miner can do with >50% hash power is double spend bitcoins for which he controls the private key or censor transactions by not including them in the blocks he creates. He cannot spend bitcoins for which he doesn't control the private keys.


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Let's distinguish a couple cases: Cooperative close In the case of a cooperative close, the two channel partner can agree on any transaction they want. Thus, they can pick the fee rate on the spot. As the two outputs would likely not have any timelocks, either party could use child-pays-for-parent (CPFP) to bump the initial closing transaction. They could ...


2

There are no real rules, per se, just various optimizations. ASICs are fast. They can burn through the entire 2^32 possible nonces for a given block in seconds, which requires miners to use the extra nonce field in the coinbase transaction to generate a new block header (since altering the coinbase transaction changes the merkle root) and try again. This ...


1

You almost have it, you just need to make sure you are creating a transaction with an output that your wallet can sign. Example (on regtest) bitcoin-cli -regtest addmultisigaddress 2 '["02983a79d2de8e504d00ddd2343b582acef7e17ed91b308ade8dff027a92e7716d","03548ca1916957bc06dd1c6e3639ebf7b2c3c8b1715915433c1d37cab56fb26ef0","...


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Does bitcoin qt need to synch with the network before it will notice the change has been received It won't know about the change transaction until it has processed the block containing that transaction. Your change transaction is in a recent block, your bitcoin software is still catching up earlier blocks and hasn't retrieved that recent block yet. ...


1

The online script check program that you are using to evaluate the script has numerous issues. First, there is a known issue of the software calculating the OP_HASH160 incorrectly. For example, the HASH160 of the public key that you have entered (the one starting with 04...) is 7f9b1a7fb68d60c536c2fd8aeaa53a8f3cc025a8 while the program is calculating it as ...


1

The question was originally referring to unilateral channel closes, I could have made that clearer. Sighash single does not work since it can only sign in/outs at the same index. An idea proposed by lightning developers has been to add output hooks (spendable by each counter-party) with no/low amounts which are spendable by child transactions which lift ...


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Are out-of-band fee payments to confirm a lightning closing transaction the only way to manage a situation where the sat/kw of a previously signed commitment tx are simply below market? Yes, you will have to do it out-of-band, as you would not be able to use fee rate that is higher than the last signed commitment transaction within the framework of the ...


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