A transaction is confirmed when it is included in a block, so you will need to watch for a message that alerts your node (or whatever software you are using to watch the P2P gossip traffic) to a new block, that includes the transaction in question. It doesn't matter if a node run by a miner relays your transaction to other nodes on the network, it only ...
bitaddress.org does not use the same private keys for paper wallet generation as for the single wallet. It uses the same initial entropy that you provide, but new private keys are generated for the paper wallet. Thus the addresses are different.
If you have a wallet that isn’t opened for the period of pruning, it won’t be able to scan transactions. If you set the limit to 2GB, and 4GB of blocks pass without opening the wallet, it may miss incoming transactions as the required blocks will have been deleted.
A pruned node will always catch up, whats the hassle?
The issue stems from having Bitcoin Core opened but the wallet in question is not loaded in Bitcoin Core (because you closed it). Bitcoin Core will continue to be synced and receive new blocks and transactions. However, it will discard old blocks once it has stored the configured amount of block data.
It sounds like your wallet.dat file is still intact, but some of the environment data has gotten corrupted (possibly due to moving wallet files).
db_load -r lsn wallet.dat
This will reset the LSNs in the wallet.dat file which should cause the errors in the db.log to go away. Once you do that, delete the database/ folder and start Bitcoin Core.