This is a question from a stanford course(http://cs251crypto.stanford.edu/18au-cs251/hw/hw1.pdf).
I think that Alice needs to send all the k blocks (containing the transactions) to Bob so that Bob can hash them one by one to ensure that next block is in chain. As the block Bob has, contains last transaction's hash, he can verify with that. But in that case, he can simply see the transaction, and merkle tree don't come into picture, so k data is not used and size of 1 block is also not provided in question. Am I missing something. Also, Alice can send the Merkle proof (the log(n) number of extra hashes along with hash of the transaction) to prove that the transaction is present in a block (comparing the net hash with Merkle root). But, the problem is that Bob contains only current block header, but the original transaction is in the chain n blocks back. Now if Alice provides only the header, bob can't know that they are not edited. Is there any other way, he can send some information which will ensure that Alice has not tampered with the info?