The block index and chain state databases are LevelDB databases. LevelDB has its own caching and cache management. So 2 MiB is being allocated for the block index's LevelDB database cache, and 8 MiB is being allocated for the chain state's LevelDB database cache.
However Bitcoin Core does additional caching by itself, particularly for the UTXO set, which is stored in the chain state database. So Bitcoin Core is also allocating 441 MiB for itself to manage a cache of UTXO set entries.
The difference is that LevelDB will organize its cache differently from Bitcoin Core's in-memory UTXO set because LevelDB is a database system. So it is optimized for data handling and has a strategy that is generalized to all kinds of database uses. However Bitcoin Core knows what data it is putting into the database and so it can cache that more effectively. It caches the data before it needs to be serialized and written to the database. Because Bitcoin Core knows how the data will be used, it's caching through the in-memory UTXO set can be optimized for the actual use cases.