I'm struggling to find a way to calculate the bitcoin equivalent “target” from that number.
Your difficulty recalculation algorithm will need to be completely different then. The easiest way to change it is to just start with an initial difficulty with all bits set and then bit shift this number as needed to get a target with some set number of leading zeros.
Additionally I wonder why it is not implemented that way in the bitcoin protocol? Does it cause too harsh steps of difficulty?
Because it only allows for the difficulty to double or halve. Furthermore, there are only 256 possible difficulties so this is not at all ideal nor would it work particularly well. This means that the target would usually be too high or too low. By using a target value, the difficulty can be adjusted to far more levels (2^256 possible difficulties) to better match the network hashrate.